Timeline of key events in the development of Campath

Waldmann, under the mentorship of Alan Munro, launches research to understand the mechanism behind immune tolerance. 1973-01-01T00:00:00+0000Waldmann joins the Laboratory of Molecular Biology to learn how to produce monoclonal antibodies.1978-01-01T00:00:00+0000Work begins on the development of an anti-T-cell monoclonal antibody that can fix human complement to be used as a tool to prevent graft-versus-host disease in patients receiving bone marrow transplants. 1979-01-01T00:00:00+0000Referred to as Campath-1 (CAMbridge Pathology) family of antibodies, these are the first set of monoclonal antibodies against human lymphocytes derived from a rat. 1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000Waldmann is granted a programme grant to investigate the immunobiology of bone marrow transplantation.1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000The man treated is suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. While unable to prevent the death of the patient, the trial shows Campath-1M to be effective at depleting T-cells and well-tolerated.1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The woman's bone marrow recovers after treatment. Treatment is halted after it is shown that the woman's bone marrow has been reconstituted by her own stem cells rather than those of her donor. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000Testing is undertaken as part of a collaboration between Waldmann and Shimon Slavin at Haddasah Hospital, Jerusalem. Results are promising but two patients reject their transplants, so Waldmann and his team take a break from testing.1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000The aim is to generate Campath monoclonal antibodies that can be infused directly into patients. 1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000G. Hale et al, 'Removal of T cells from bone marrow for transplantation: a monoclonal antilymphocyte antibody that fixes human complement', Blood, 62, (1983), 873-82.1983-10-25T00:00:00+0000The patient is being cared for by Martin Dyer and Frank Hayhoe. He is suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Although the patient died shortly after treatment from his underlying disease, the result from the testing is promising. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1G is seen as a possible means to reduce immunosuppressive drugs. Fears about the toxicity of the drug prevent work going any further. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000Wellcome Biotech gain the rights to develop Campath for a number of diseases including CLL.1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000The company develops the mechanism for the large-scale manufacture of Campath-1H. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1G is humanised, resulting in Campath-1H. It is accomplished with technology developed by Greg Winter.1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000The patient is a 69 year old woman suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The drug dramatically improves her health. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000Patients show marked improvements with the drug.1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000The aim of the centre is to facilitate the production of Campath and other monoclonal antibodies for clinical testing.1990-09-01T00:00:00+0000The research is undertaken by John Isaacs in collaboration with Brian Hazelman at Addenbrooke's Hospital.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places
1973Herman Waldmannn joins the Department of Pathology, Cambridge University.WaldmannCambridge University
1978 - 1979Waldmann takes a sabbatical with Cesar Milstein.WaldmannLaboratory of Molecular Biology
1979Waldmann is joined in his work by Stephen Cobbold, Geoff Hale, Alan Munro, Don Metcalfe, Suzanne Watt and Hoang Trang.Waldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge University
1980First monoclonal antibodies developed against T-cells which can also activate human complement.Waldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge University
1980Waldmann gains MRC funding.WaldmannCambridge University
1982The first patient is treated with Campath-1M.Waldmann, Swirsky, HayhoeCambridge University
1982Campath-1M is given to a patient with aplastic anaemia undergoing a bone marrow transplantWaldmann, Hows, Gordon SmithHammersmith Hospital
1983 - 1984Campath-1M is used in 11 leukaemia patients undergoing BMTs.Waldmann, SlavinHaddasah Hospital
1983 - 1985Efforts turn to generating IG Campath monoclonal antibodies.Waldmann, Hale, CobboldCambridge University
October 1983Publication of experiments indicating Campath-1 (alemtuzumab) monoclonal antibody activates complement and eliminate T-cellsWaldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge University
1985Campath-1G is tested in the first patient.Waldmann, Hayhoe, DyerCambridge University
1985Campath-1G is explored on a small scale for the management of organ transplants by Roy Calne, a British transplant surgeon based at Addenbrooke's hospitalWaldmann, CalneCambridge University
1985Wellcome Biotech licenses the rights to commercially develop Campath.Wellcome Biotech, BTG
1985 - 1994Wellcome Biotech invests GBP 50 million in Campath.Wellcome Biotech
1988Campath-1H is created - the first clinically useful humanised monoclonal antibody.Winter, Waldmann, Reichmann, ClarkCambridge University, Laboratory of Molecular Biology
1988Campath-1H is tested in the first humanWaldmann, Hale, Dyer, HayhoeCambridge University
November 1988Martin Lockwood, a clinician at Addenbrooke's Hospital, begins testing Campath-1H in patients with vasculitis.Lockwood, Hale, WaldmannCambridge University
1 Sep 1990The Therapeutic Antibody Centre (TAC) opens in the Regional Transfusion Centre at Addenbrooke's Hospital.Waldmann, HaleCambridge University
1991Campath-1H begins to be tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)Isaacs, Hazleman, Hale, WaldmannCambridge University
1991Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).Waldmann, Hale, CompstonCambridge University

1973

Herman Waldmannn joins the Department of Pathology, Cambridge University.

1978 - 1979

Waldmann takes a sabbatical with Cesar Milstein.

1979

Waldmann is joined in his work by Stephen Cobbold, Geoff Hale, Alan Munro, Don Metcalfe, Suzanne Watt and Hoang Trang.

1980

First monoclonal antibodies developed against T-cells which can also activate human complement.

1980

Waldmann gains MRC funding.

1982

The first patient is treated with Campath-1M.

1982

Campath-1M is given to a patient with aplastic anaemia undergoing a bone marrow transplant

1983 - 1984

Campath-1M is used in 11 leukaemia patients undergoing BMTs.

1983 - 1985

Efforts turn to generating IG Campath monoclonal antibodies.

Oct 1983

Publication of experiments indicating Campath-1 (alemtuzumab) monoclonal antibody activates complement and eliminate T-cells

1985

Campath-1G is tested in the first patient.

1985

Campath-1G is explored on a small scale for the management of organ transplants by Roy Calne, a British transplant surgeon based at Addenbrooke's hospital

1985

Wellcome Biotech licenses the rights to commercially develop Campath.

1985 - 1994

Wellcome Biotech invests GBP 50 million in Campath.

1988

Campath-1H is created - the first clinically useful humanised monoclonal antibody.

1988

Campath-1H is tested in the first human

Nov 1988

Martin Lockwood, a clinician at Addenbrooke's Hospital, begins testing Campath-1H in patients with vasculitis.

Nov 1988

The Therapeutic Antibody Centre (TAC) opens in the Regional Transfusion Centre at Addenbrooke's Hospital.

1991

Campath-1H begins to be tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

1991

Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).