Cell

Cell: timeline of key events

Hooke was a natural philosopher. In 1665 he coined the word 'cell' to describe a basic unit of life in his book, Microphia, describing his observations with microscopes and telescopes and biological experiments. He noted that plant cells resembled the cells of a honeycomb. 1635-07-28T00:00:00+0000The English physicist Robert Hooke provided the first description of cells to the Royal Society.1663-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hooke was a natural philosopher. In 1665 he coined the word 'cell' to describe a basic unit of life in his book, Microphia, describing his observations with microscopes and telescopes and biological experiments. He noted that plant cells resembled the cells of a honeycomb. 1703-03-03T00:00:00+0000Schleiden was a botanist. Based on his study of plant structures under the microscope he helped develop the theory that cells are the basic structure in all organisms and the basic unit of reproduction. He also connected the cell nucleus with cell division and suggested that all embryonic plant cells arose from one cell. 1804-04-05T00:00:00+0000Schwann was a physiologist who defined the cell as the basic unit of animal tissue structure. This was based on his investigation of the structure and function of nerves, muscles and blood vessels. His work in this area was aided by the arrival of new powerful microscopes. Schwann's work laid the foundation for the study of cell biology.1810-12-07T00:00:00+0000Flemming was a biologist who is credited with the foundation of cytogenetics. He was the first to describe the behaviour of chromosomes during cell division, a process he called mitosis. This he discovered through investigations of the fins and gills of salamanders. He first published his findings in 1878. In addition to his pioneering scientific work, Flemming is famous for his social activism. Notably he fed the homeless on a weekly basis and donated 20% of his salary to homeless shelters. He also taught mathematics and science to children too poor to attend school. 1843-04-21T00:00:00+0000van Beneden was a cytologist and embryologist. He worked out how chromosomes divide during cell meiosis. Based on studies of an intestinal worm found in horses, he also showed that fertilisation involves the union of two half-nuclei, one form the male sperm cell and one from the female egg, each containing half the the number of chromosomes found in all cells. He later demonstrated that the chromosome number is constant for every body cell in each species. 1846-03-05T00:00:00+0000Hopkins was a biochemist who shared the 1929 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering vitamins and demonstrating they were an important nutrient in the diet. This was based on experiments he carried out on rats in 1901. He also helped establish the chemistry of muscle contraction, showing that lactic acid accumulated in working muscle in 1907. In 1922 he isolated and demonstrated the importance of tripeptide gluathione to the utilisation of oxygen by the cell. 1861-06-20T00:00:00+0000Ernst Haeckel, German biologist and philosopher, proposes the cell nucleus contains factors responsible for the transmission of hereditary traits.1866-01-01T00:00:00+0000Schleiden was a botanist. Based on his study of plant structures under the microscope he helped develop the theory that cells are the basic structure in all organisms and the basic unit of reproduction. He also connected the cell nucleus with cell division and suggested that all embryonic plant cells arose from one cell. 1881-06-23T00:00:00+0000The stem cell is conceived as a distinctive cell which serves as the starting point for blood formation.1882-01-01T00:00:00+0000Schwann was a German physiologist who defined the cell as the basic unit of animal tissue structure. This was based on his investigation of the structure and function of nerves, muscles and blood vessels. His work in this area was aided by the arrival of new powerful microscopes. Schwann's work laid the foundation for the study of cell biology.1884-01-11T00:00:00+0000The key difficulty is that the blood stem cell cannot be identified using microscopy1890-01-01T00:00:00+0000Albert Szent-Gyorgyi was a biochemist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937 for isolating vitamin C and determining the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle. He subsequently worked on the biophysics of muscle movement and discovered that biochemical nature of muscular contraction. His findings revolutionised the field of muscle research. Later on he explored the connections between free radicals and cancer. 1893-09-16T00:00:00+0000Claude was a physician and cell biologist. In 1930 he developed the process of cell fractionation which involves grinding up cells to break up the membrane and their contents. The material is then placed in a centrifuge to separate out the cells's components. With the technique he was able to identify and purify the RNA from the Rous sarcoma virus which causes cancer in chickens. Claude was also one of the first to use of the electron microscope to study biological cells, which enabled him to discover that ribosomes are the power houses of all cells. In addition he helped show that all eukaryotic cells have a lace-work structure. In 1974 he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning cell structure and function. 1898-08-24T00:00:00+0000Flemming was a German biologist who is credited with the foundation of cytogenetics. He was the first to describe the behaviour of chromosomes during cell division, a process he called mitosis. This he discovered through investigations of the fins and gills of salamanders. He first published his findings in 1878. In addition to his pioneering scientific work, Flemming is famous for his social activism. Notably he fed the homeless on a weekly basis and donated 20% of his salary to homeless shelters. He also taught mathematics and science to children too poor to attend school. 1905-08-04T00:00:00+0000The Russian histologist Alexander Maksimov proposes the term 'stem cell' for scientific usage.1908-01-01T00:00:00+0000Levi-Montalcini is best known for sharing the Nobel Prize in 1986 for helping to discover and isolate the nerve growth factor which helps regulate the growth, maintenance, proliferation and survival of certian neurons. Banned by Mussolini from working in academia because she was Jewish, Levi-Montalcini conducted much of her early work in a makeshift laboratory in her bedroom. She later became the director of the Research Center of Neurobiology and the Laboratory of Cellular Biology in Washington University and founded the European Brain Research Institute. 1909-04-22T00:00:00+0000van Beneden was a Belgian cytologist and embryologist. He worked out how chromosomes divide during cell meiosis. Based on studies of an intestinal worm found in horses, he also showed that fertilisation involves the union of two half-nuclei, one form the male sperm cell and one from the female egg, each containing half the the number of chromosomes found in all cells. He later demonstrated that the chromosome number is constant for every body cell in each species. 1910-04-28T00:00:00+0000Porter was a Canadian biologist. He is renowned for having developed many of the techniques and experimental approaches that underpinned the founding of cellular biology as a new discipline in biomedical research. Critically he developed the first electron microscope techniques to get high resolution images of cells and tissues. In 1945 he published the first electron microgragh of a complete animal cell. His other major contributions to the field was his development a roller-flask for culturing cells and helping to invent an instrument for getting ultra-thin slices of tissue for microscopy.1912-06-11T00:00:00+0000Palade was a cell biologist who helped determine cell function and organisation. He and colleagues demonstrated that all plant cells and some animal and bacteria cells have a vacuole, an enclosed compartment in the cell membrane, which contains enzymes essential to maintaining the cell's health. In 1974 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his innovations in electron microscopy and cell fractionation, which laid the foundation for molecular cell biology, and his discovery of the ribosomes of endoplastic reticulum in 1955. 1912-11-19T00:00:00+0000Mazia was a cell biologist whose passion was to understand how cells reproduce. As a doctoral researcher he was one of the first to establish the role of calcium in the egg activation in the process of fertilisation. Following this worked on the process of cell division, structure and division. He is best known for the work he did in 1931 which helped identify the cell structure responsible for mitosis, the process when a eukaryotic cell divides chromosomes into two identical daughter cells. Mazia also determined how the nucleus and chromosomes change during the cell cycle.1912-12-18T00:00:00+0000Sutherland was a pharmacologist and biochemist who helped work out the action of hormone action at the molecular level. He made several breakthroughs, including the identification of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a substance that acts as a secondary messenger in cells and has an important role in the actions of hormones at the cellular level. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1971 on the back of this work. 1915-11-19T00:00:00+0000de Duve was a cytologist and biochemist. The son of Belgian refugees who fled to England during World War I, de Duve is associated with the discovery of peroxisome and lysosome in the 1950s and 1960s. They are two specialised subunits found within the cell and are vital to the function of the cell. His work paved the way to unravelling the biology of several genetic diseases. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1974 on the back of his 'discoveries concerning the structural and functional organisation of the cell.' de Duve helped determine the structure and function of parts of the cell. 1917-10-02T00:00:00+0000Huxley was a physiologist and biophysicist who helped uncover the mechanism of muscle contraction in 1954 through experiments on the giant axon of the Atlantic Squid. His study of muscle fibres was helped by his development of interference microscopy. Huxley shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1963 for 'discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane'. 1917-11-22T00:00:00+0000Krebs was a biochemist who in 1933 was forced to leave Nazi Germany because his father was Jewish. He is best known for having discovered two important chemical reactions in the body - the urea cycle and the citric acid cycle. These chemical reactions help break down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water and energy. He made the breakthrough in the 1930s. The process is known as the Krebs cycle. Krebs was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954.1918-06-06T00:00:00+0000Cohen is a biochemist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1986 for helping to isolate the nerve growth factor that induces the differentiation of nerve tissue. In 1993 he discovered epidermal growth factor, a protein that stimulates cell growth and differentiation. Cohen's research on cellular growth factors has provided new avenues for understanding cancer growth and enabled the design of new treatments for cancer. 1922-11-17T00:00:00+0000Rodbell was a biochemist and molecular endocrinologist who shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the discovery of G-proteins and their role in signal transduction within the cell. This he received in recognition of work he carried out on the effect of the hormone glucagon on a rat liver membrane receptor in 1979-70. He discovered that GTP (guanosine triphosphate) was a strong agent for reversing the binding action of glucagon to the cell receptor and dissociate the glucagon from the cell altogether. He found that GTP stimulated the activity of the guanine nucleotide protein (later called the G-protein), which, in turn, produced profound metabolic effects in the cell. 1925-12-01T00:00:00+0000Rose was a biochemist who shared the 2004 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for contributing to understandings about how cells break down proteins. He first became interested in the puzzle of how cells identify and destroy unwanted proteins in the 1950s. In the late 1970s he showed that ubiquitin, a protein present in countless tissues, helped tag other proteins that needed to be destroyed. It would then attach itself to another protein that was no longer functioning and take it to the proteasome chamber to be broken down and recycled. Rose also helped in the development of a drug to treat multiple myeloma, a blood cancer. The drug works by disrupting the protein disposal mechanism and kills the cancer cells with a pile-up of protein.1926-07-16T00:00:00+0000Hartwell shared the 2001 Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to discover protein molecules that regulate the cell cycle. This was based on his identification of more than 100 genes that control the growth and division of cells in baker's yeast in the late 1960s. He also discovered optional pauses in the cell cycle which allowed time for the repair of damaged DNA. This work has advanced the understanding of cancer and other diseases related to when the cell cycle breaks down. From 1997 to 2010 Hartwell served as the president and director of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. 1939-10-30T00:00:00+0000Gilman was a pharmacologist and biochemist who shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering G-proteins and their role in signal transduction within cells. This was based on seminal research he conducted with mutant cells at the University of Virginia in the 1970s. G-Proteins were named as such because they become activated when bound to a molecule called guanosine tripsphate. 1941-07-01T00:00:00+0000Research undertaken by Health Division of Manhattan Project. 1942-01-01T00:00:00+0000Observation made by Leon O. Jacobson working within Health Division of the Manhattan Project.1942-01-01T00:00:00+0000Sulston is a biologist. He played a central role in sequencing the genome of the Caenorhabditis elegans, a transparent nematode (roundworm). It was the first animal to have its genome sequenced. Based on his work with the nematode Sulston helped set up the project to sequence the human genome which he did as director of the Sanger Centre. The first draft of the human genome sequence was completed in 2000. In 2002 he shared the Nobel Prize for identifying how genes regulate the life cycle of cells through apoptosis. 1942-03-27T00:00:00+0000The atomic age brings new radiation dangers. Understanding these dangers in order to safeguard against them becomes an important focus of post-war radiobiology. 1945-01-01T00:00:00+0000Set up in Harwell, UK, the role of the AERE is to undertake research that serves the whole of Britain's nuclear enterprise, including the dangers of radiation.1945-01-01T00:00:00+0000The MRC RU is an autonomous institute that forms part of the AERE Harwell, UK.1947-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hopkins was a British biochemist who shared the 1929 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering vitamins and demonstrating they were an important nutrient in the diet. This was based on experiments he carried out on rats in 1901. He also helped establish the chemistry of muscle contraction, showing that lactic acid accumulated in working muscle in 1907. In 1922 he isolated and demonstrated the importance of tripeptide gluathione to the utilisation of oxygen by the cell. 1947-05-16T00:00:00+0000The objective of these experiments is to understand how the bone marrow protects against radiation damage.1949-01-01T00:00:00+0000Nurse shared the 2001 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering key regulators of the cell cycle.1949-01-25T00:00:00+0000Schoemaker was co-founder and first Chief Executive Officer of Centocor, an American biotechnology company that pioneered the commercialisation of monoclonal antibody diagnostics and therapeutics. After Centocor was sold to Johnson & Johnson for $5.2 billion in 1999, Schoemaker founded Neuronyx to develop cellular therapies. One of the treatments pioneered by Neuronyx was the use of stem cells from bone marrow to help regenerate heart tissue damaged by heart attacks. 1950-03-23T00:00:00+00001951-01-01T00:00:00+0000Conceived by Egon Lorenz, the experiment was designed to test whether - like the spleen - marrow can regenerate the blood system. This experiment sets the foundation for bone marrow transplantation. 1951-01-01T00:00:00+0000The experiments involve bone marrow transplants from mice where the donor marrow cells are marked with a specific chromosome marker, T6. The presence of the T6 marker in all blood cells of surviving recipient mice indicates their blood system was regenerated by a cell from the donor. This empirical evidence lends support to the concept of the blood stem cell.1956-01-01T00:00:00+0000Lays the basis for improving the treatment of leukaemia in humans.1956-01-01T00:00:00+0000ED Thomas, HL Lochte, WC Lu, JW Ferrebee, 'Intravenous infusion of bone marrow in patients receiving radiation and chemotherapy'. The New England Journal of Medicine, 257 (J.W. (12 September 1957), 491–6.1957-01-09T00:00:00+0000The patients are 6 Yugoslav physicians who had been accidentally irradiated at a nuclear power plant.1959-01-01T00:00:00+0000Each sick child was terminally ill and chemotherapy was of no further use. Lethal levels of radiation were used to try to eradicate the leukaemia, followed by the infusion of genetically identical marrow (from the healthy twin).1959-01-01T00:00:00+00001959-01-01T00:00:00+0000Severity of GvHD in humans unforeseen, and seemingly insurmountable 1960-01-01T00:00:00+0000This discovery sets the stage for all current research on adult and embryonic stem cells.1961-01-01T00:00:00+0000The phenomenon was named the 'Hayflick Limit' after Leonard Hayflick who discovered it. It is now known to relate to genetic instability in aging cells and the development of cancer.1961-01-01T00:00:00+0000Researchers return to animal models.1962-01-01T00:00:00+00001962-01-01T00:00:00+0000The protein was discovered in a small mouse-sized jellyfish Aequorea victoria by the Japenese born scientist Osamu Shimomura while at Princeton University. The fact that the protein emits a green light in the presence UV lights makes it very useful for many different applications. Now it is possible to genetically engineer organisms with the gene for the protein. This makes it possible to study the inside of a living cell on an unprecedented scale. It was published in O Shimomura, FH Johnson FH, Y Saiga, 'Extraction, purification and properties of aequorin, a bioluminescent protein from the luminous hydromedusan, Aequorea', Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology', 59/3 (1962), 223–39.1962-06-01T00:00:00+0000E.J. Delorme, P. Alexander, 'Treatment of primary fibrosarcoma in the rat with immune lymphocytes', Lancet, 2 (1964), 117–120.1964-07-18T00:00:00+0000Transplant conducted by George Mathe at the Institute of Cancer and Immunotherapeutics, Paul-Brouse Hospital, Paris. The procedure focuses on genetically different patient and donor. 1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000Stem cells gain increasing interest for the recovery of the blood system in patients undergoing chemotherapy and bone marrow transplants1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000The Institute is based in Manchester, UK1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000The cultivation is on solid (agar) media in petri dishes. This marks a major methodological advance as marrow is difficult to grow in the laboratory.1965-01-01T00:00:00+0000The proceedure was performed by physician-scientist Robert Good to treat boy born with severe combined immunodeficiency. 1968-01-01T00:00:00+0000The tumour stem cell idea emerges from the study of teratomas in tumour biology. Teratomas are a group of tumours, some benign and some malignant. Such tumours develop from cells early in their development before they become muscle cell, or a nerve cell, etc. 1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000 Bone marrow cells remain difficult to grow in the laboratory. Marrow regeneration in the irradiated/transplanted mouse remains the strongest evidence for its existence, and for its presence in marrow.1970-01-01T00:00:00+0000Ronald Cape, Peter Farley and Donald Glaser establish Cetus Corporation to generate industrial micro-organisms for the production of greater amounts of chemical feedstocks, antibiotics and vaccine compounds. 1971-01-01T00:00:00+0000The transplant was carried out by Richard O'Reilly and Robert Good. This lays the foundation for the routine use of bone marrow transplants for treating some blood cancers. Such transplants are classed as immunotherapy because immune cells from the donor kill cancer cells in the recipient. 1973-01-01T00:00:00+0000Sutherland was an American pharmacologist and biochemist who helped work out the action of hormone action at the molecular level. He made several breakthroughs, including the identification of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a substance that acts as a secondary messenger in cells and has an important role in the actions of hormones at the cellular level. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1971 on the back of this work.1974-03-09T00:00:00+00001975-01-01T00:00:00+0000First long-term clinical study of bone marrow transplants in over 100 terminally ill acute leukaemia patients in whom chemotherapy was of no further use reports the survival of thirteen patients. This marks a breakthrough in leukaemia therapy, and sets the scene for the use of bone marrow transplants as a routine therapeutic option for some patients with some forms of acute leukaemia.1977-01-01T00:00:00+00001978-01-01T00:00:00+0000The identity of the blood stem cell, especially that in the human, and even its existence remains the subject of debate because the cell is difficult to isolate. Those involved in the debate include the Manchester group (Dexter, Lord) and American groups (Weissmann and Morrison). Part of the problem is that techniques for studying the human blood stem cell lagged behind that of animal models. 1980-01-01T00:00:00+00001980-01-01T00:00:00+0000The technique was developed by Martin Evans and Matt Kaufman. They showed that by delaying implantation it was possible to obtain slightly enlarged mouse blastocysts and that cells taken from these blastocysts could be used to establish mouse embryo stem cell cultures. The work was published in MJ Evans, MH Kaufman, 'Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos', Nature, 292/154 (1981), 154-56.1981-07-09T00:00:00+0000Krebs was a biochemist who in 1933 was forced to leave Nazi Germany because his father was Jewish. He is best known for having discovered two important chemical reactions in the body - the urea cycle and the citric acid cycle. These chemical reactions help break down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water and energy. He made the breakthrough in the 1930s. The process is known as the Krebs cycle. Krebs was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954.1981-11-22T00:00:00+0000The advantage of the method was that it avoided in vivo alteration. It involved culturing cells isolated from blastocysts in a medium that contains a factor to stimulate embryonic stem cell proliferation or suppress their differentiation. The method was developed by Gail Martin. It was published in G R Martin, 'Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells', PNAS USA, 78/12 (1981) 7634-81981-12-01T00:00:00+0000Work commences on the cancer stem cell theory as an explanation for leukaemia, and as an explanation for remission in this form of cancer. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+00001982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The progenitor cells are biological cells that, like stem cells, have the capacity to differentiate into a specific type of cell. The distinction between marrow and progenitor cells is made by measuring the regenerative capacity in vivo of the cells using colony methods. 1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The company is a public company1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000EA Grimm, A Mazumder, HZ Zhang, SA Rosenberg, 'Lymphokine-activated killer cell phenomenon', Journal Experimental Medicine, 155 (1982), 1823-41.1982-06-01T00:00:00+0000Claude was a Belgian physician and cell biologist. In 1930 he developed the process of cell fractionation which involves grinding up cells to break up the membrane and their contents. The material is then placed in a centrifuge to separate out the cells's components. With the technique he was able to identify and purify the RNA from the Rous sarcoma virus which causes cancer in chickens. Claude was also one of the first to use of the electron microscope to study biological cells, which enabled him to discover that ribosomes are the power houses of all cells. In addition he helped show that all eukaryotic cells have a lace-work structure. In 1974 he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning cell structure and function.1983-05-22T00:00:00+0000Identified by Curt Civin and his team at Johns Hopkins, the subset of cells bearing the CD34 (surface) marker is shown also to contain other kinds of cell. The research shows that the blood stem cell can be enriched for, but not purified. The advance proves useful in the clinical setting where enrichment for the CD34 cell can aid faster recovery of the blood system in patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplants for serious blood disorders. 1984-01-01T00:00:00+00001984-01-01T00:00:00+00001984-01-01T00:00:00+00001984-01-01T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg, 'Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer: accomplishments and prospects', Cancer Treat Rep, 68/1 ( (1984): 233–55.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg et al, 'Observations on the systemic administration of autologous lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin-2 to patients with metastatic cancer', New England Journal of Medicine, 313 (1985), 1485-92.1985-12-05T00:00:00+00001986-01-01T00:00:00+0000S.A. Rosenberg, P. Spiess, R. Lafreniere, 'A New Approach to the Adoptive Immunotherapy of Cancer with Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes', Science, 233/4770 (1996), 1318-21.1986-09-19T00:00:00+0000Albert Szent-Gyorgyi was a Hungarian-American biochemist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937 for isolating vitamin C and determining the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle. He subsequently worked on the biophysics of muscle movement and discovered that biochemical nature of muscular contraction. His findings revolutionised the field of muscle research. Later on he explored the connections between free radicals and cancer.1986-10-22T00:00:00+0000MT Lotze, AE Chang, CA Seipp, C Simpson, JT Vetto, AS Rosenberg, 'High-dose recombinant interleukin 2 in the treatment of patients with disseminated cancer', JAMA, 256 (1986), 3117-24. 1986-12-12T00:00:00+00001987-01-01T00:00:00+0000The company is a public company1987-01-01T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg et al, 'A progress report on the treatment of 157 patients with advanced cancer using lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 or high-dose interleukin-2 alone', New England Journal of Medicine, 9/316 (1987), 889-97. 1987-04-09T00:00:00+0000Blood stem cells from the umbilical cord are understood, theoretically, to be both especially potent and unlikely to provoke a strong immunological response in the recipient. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000The company is a public company1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000 GJ Spangrude, S Heimfeld, IL Weissman, 'Purification and characterization of mouse hematopoietic stem cells', Science, 241 (1988), 58-62. 1988-07-01T00:00:00+0000SA Rosenberg et al, 'Use of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and interleukin-2 in the immunotherapy of patients with metastatic melanoma. A preliminary report', New England Journal of Medicine, 319 (1988), 1676-80.1988-12-22T00:00:00+00001989-01-01T00:00:00+0000Study conducted by French Anderson in collaboration with Steven Rosenberg in 52 year old cancer patient as preliminary experiment to test gene therapy in children with severe combined immunodeficiency disorder. 1989-05-01T00:00:00+0000G. Gross, T. Waks, Z. Eshhar, 'Expression of immunoglobulin-T-cell receptor chimeric molecules as functional receptors with antibody-type specificity', PNAS USA, 86 (1989), 10024–8.1989-12-01T00:00:00+0000The aim is to supply blood cells/bone marrow for transplantation.1990-01-01T00:00:00+0000Discovered by Urban Lendahl.1990-01-01T00:00:00+00001990-01-01T00:00:00+0000A. Kasid et al, 'Human gene transfer: characterization of human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as vehicles for retroviral-mediated gene transfer in man', PNAS USA, 87/1 (1990), 473-77.1990-01-01T00:00:00+0000S.A. Rosenberg et al, 'Gene Transfer into Humans — Immunotherapy of patients with advanced melanoma, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes modified by retroviral gene transduction', NEJM, 323 (1990), 570-78.1990-08-30T00:00:00+0000This supplies blood cord from siblings to treat childhood Fanconi anaemia. 1992-01-01T00:00:00+00001992-01-01T00:00:00+00001992-01-01T00:00:00+0000Procedure devised by Claudio Bordignon at Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan. 1992-01-01T00:00:00+0000This is accomplished through the generation of embryonic stem cell-derived mice.1993-01-01T00:00:00+0000Z Eshhar, 'Specific activation and targeting of cytotoxic lymphocytes through chimeric single chains consisting of antibody-binding domains and the gamma or zeta subunits of the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptors', PNAS USA, 90/2 (1989), 720-24.1993-01-15T00:00:00+00001994-01-01T00:00:00+00001994-01-01T00:00:00+0000This is put forward by John Dick and his colleagues who theorise about the existence of the leukaemia stem cell in acute and chronic myeloid leukaemia. 1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000A. Ramon-cueto, M. Nieto-Sampedro, Regeneration into the spinal cord of transected dorsal root axons is promoted by ensheathing glia transplants, Exp Neurol, 27/2 (1994), 232–44.1994-06-01T00:00:00+00001995-01-01T00:00:00+0000The belief that adult stem cells, especially the blood stem cell, can give rise to cells such as brain, liver and cardiac gives rise to notion that adult stem cells could be used like embryonic counterparts for regenerative therapies, helping in degenerative diseases of the brain and heart. This marks a paradigm shift as it goes against dogma from decades of research and clinical success with the blood stem cell. 1996-01-01T00:00:00+0000Research conducted by KA Smale et al at Queen's University (Canada), Y. Li et al at University College London, T Imaizumi et al at Yale Univbersity School of Medicine, Guntinas-Lichius et al at the University of Cologne, H H Nash et al the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, M J Ruitenberg et al at the Netherlands Institute for Brain Research.1996-01-01T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was born as a result of the cloning of an adult cell. This was achieved by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success. Dolly was the first mammal to be cloned.1996-01-07T00:00:00+0000Mazia was an American cell biologist whose passion was to understand how cells reproduce. As a doctoral researcher he was one of the first to establish the role of calcium in the egg activation in the process of fertilisation. Following this worked on the process of cell division, structure and division. He is best known for the work he did in 1931 which helped identify the cell structure responsible for mitosis, the process when a eukaryotic cell divides chromosomes into two identical daughter cells. Mazia also determined how the nucleus and chromosomes change during the cell cycle. 1996-06-09T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was created by cloning an adult cell. This was done by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success. The work was carried out by Keith Campbell, Ian Wilmut and colleagues at the Rosilin Institute, PPL Therapeutics and the Ministry of Agriculture. 1996-07-05T00:00:00+0000Porter was a Canadian biologist. He is renowned for having developed many of the techniques and experimental approaches that underpinned the founding of cellular biology as a new discipline in biomedical research. Critically he developed the first electron microscope techniques to get high resolution images of cells and tissues. In 1945 he published the first electron microgragh of a complete animal cell. His other major contributions to the field was his development a roller-flask for culturing cells and helping to invent an instrument for getting ultra-thin slices of tissue for microscopy. 1997-05-02T00:00:00+0000This overturns the long-held belief that the brain is unable to generate new neurons.1998-01-01T00:00:00+0000James Thomson, Jeffrey Jones, and co-workers reported isolating five human embryonic stem cell lines from human blastocysts (Science 282/5391 (1998), 1145-7).1998-10-06T00:00:00+0000Rodbell was an American biochemist and molecular endocrinologist who shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the discovery of G-proteins and their role in signal transduction within the cell. This he received in recognition of work he carried out on the effect of the hormone glucagon on a rat liver membrane receptor in 1979-70. He discovered that GTP (guanosine triphosphate) was a strong agent for reversing the binding action of glucagon to the cell receptor and dissociate the glucagon from the cell altogether. He found that GTP stimulated the activity of the guanine nucleotide protein (later called the G-protein), which, in turn, produced profound metabolic effects in the cell. 1998-12-07T00:00:00+0000Identified by Jonas Frisen and colleagues1999-01-01T00:00:00+0000Founded by Hubert Schoemaker, Neuronyx aimed develop stem cell technology to treat neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and brain cancer. 1999-01-01T00:00:00+0000Identified by Jonas Frisen and colleagues2000-01-01T00:00:00+00002000-01-01T00:00:00+0000Songtao Shi and colleagues at the National Institutes of Health discovered stem cells in the pulp found in the centre of extracted adult wisdom teeth. S Gronthos et al, 'Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro and in vivo', PNAS, 97/25 (2000), 13625-30. 2000-12-05T00:00:00+0000This is the first collaborative stem cell research network2001-01-01T00:00:00+00002001-01-01T00:00:00+0000The creation of new embryonic stem cell lines is banned.2001-08-09T00:00:00+0000Advanced Cell Technology, a private lab, created a six-cell embryo by removing DNA from a human egg and injecting it with the DNA of a skin cell. The aim was to produce genetically matched replacement cells for patients with a wide range of diseases.2001-10-01T00:00:00+0000The ISCF is set up to foster international collaboration and promote global good practices and accelerating progress in biomedical science.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000The multipotent cells are a specialised cell type produced from pluripotent stem cells. The purified multipotent marrow stem cells are shown capable of being used as single injected cells for extended marrow regeneration in vivo.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Guidelines included a ban on public funding of research that could lead to cloning, as well as a ban on creating embryos simply for research purposes. It also banned payments to obtain embryos for research.2002-03-04T00:00:00+0000S.K. Singh et al., 'Identification of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors', Cancer Research, 63/18 (2003), 5821-8.2003-01-01T00:00:00+0000M. Al-Hajj et al., 'Prospective identification of tumorigenic breast cancer cells', PNAS, 100/7 (2003), 3983-88.2003-01-04T00:00:00+0000Dolly the sheep was created by cloning an adult cell. This was done by transferring the nucleus of an adult sheep's cell to the nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell. It took 277 attempts to achieve success.2003-02-14T00:00:00+0000Stem cells from baby teeth found to behave much like stem cells harvested from umbilical cord blood. The discovery was made by Songtao Shi, a paediatric dentist, and his colleagues at the US National Institutes of Health. It was made on the basis of investigating baby teeth collected from both Shi's six-year old daughter and her friends. The stem cells were isolated by extracting pulp from the teeth and culturing the cells for several days. A typical incisor tooth was found to have 12 to 20 stem cells. The work was published in M M Miura et al, 'SHED: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth', PNAS, 100/10 (2003), 5807-12.2003-05-13T00:00:00+0000Dopaminergic cells believed to hold promise for treating Parkinson's disease.2004-01-01T00:00:00+0000ICSCN's aim is to unify international efforts to make stem cell therapy a reality for a broad range of debilitating diseases.2004-01-01T00:00:00+0000James Till and Ernest McCulloch awarded the Lasker Prize for experiments that first established a technique - the spleen colony assay - for enumerating the blood stem cell and studying its regenerative effects. Setting the stage for the contemporary development of stem cell biology. 2005-01-01T00:00:00+00002005-01-01T00:00:00+0000The Pattison report sets out plans and investment for the emerging paradigm of regenerative medicine where both embryonic and adult somatic stem cells will be important players. 2005-01-01T00:00:00+0000Andras Nagy created embryonic stem cell lines from donated embryos no longer needed by couples undergoing fertility treatment. This laid the foundation for the creation of embryonic stem cells from human skin four years later. 2005-06-15T00:00:00+0000A team at Harvard Stem Cell Institute reported fusing adult skin cells with embryonic stem cells to reset the culture so that the cells behave like embryonic stem cells. The researchers did the work using pelvic bone cells as the somatic cells and a different human embryonic cell line. Chad A Cowan, Jocelyn Alenza, Douglas A Melton, Kevin Eggan, 'Nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells after fusion with human embryonic stem cells', Science, 309/5739 (2005), 1369-73. 2005-08-25T00:00:00+00002006-01-01T00:00:00+0000Schoemaker was a Dutch biochemist who was co-founder and first Chief Executive Officer of Centocor, an American biotechnology company that pioneered the commercialisation of monoclonal antibody diagnostics and therapeutics. After Centocor was sold to Johnson & Johnson for $5.2 billion in 1999, Schoemaker founded Neuronyx to develop cellular therapies. One of the treatments pioneered by Neuronyx was the use of stem cells from bone marrow to help regenerate heart tissue damaged by heart attacks. 2006-01-01T00:00:00+0000A team lead by Robert Lanza at Advanced Cell Technology, a biotechnology company in Worcester, Massacusettes, announced the creation of a six-cell embryo by removing DNA from a human egg and injecting it with the DNA of a skin cell. The aim was to produce genetically matched replacement cells for patients with a wide range of diseases. The work was published in Y. Chung et al, 'Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres', Nature, 439 (2006), 216–19.2006-01-12T00:00:00+0000Japanese researcher Shinya Yamanaka shows that only four particular genes are required to create induced pluripotent stem cells, laying the foundation for reprogramming existing cells to create stem cells without using human embryos.2006-06-01T00:00:00+0000R.A. Morgan et al, 'Cancer regression in patients after transfer of genetically engineered lymphocytes', Science. 2006;314:126–129.2006-10-06T00:00:00+0000M.H. Kershaw, et al, 'A Phase I Study on Adoptive Immunotherapy Using Gene-Modified T Cells for Ovarian Cancer', Clinical Cancer Research, 11/20 (2006), 6106-15.2006-10-15T00:00:00+00002006-11-16T00:00:00+0000The Prize was awarded to to Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans and Oliver Smithies. Their work made it possible to modify specoific genes in the germline of mammals which could produce offspring that carried and expressed the modified gene. Their method is commonly called knockout technology. This has given scientists the means to study the role of specific genes in development, physiology and pathology. 2007-01-01T00:00:00+00002007-01-01T00:00:00+00002007-01-01T00:00:00+0000U.S. researchers isolate stem cells from amniotic fluid and placental tissue left over from routine prenatal tests used to detect foetal abnormalities. The AFS cells have characteristics of both human embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. But they do not form tumours when implanted in lab animals, as embryonic cells can do. P De Coppi, et al, 'Isolation of amniotic stem cell lines with potential for therapy', Nature Biotechnology, 25/1 (200&, 100-6.2007-01-07T00:00:00+00002007-04-27T00:00:00+0000Two different groups demonstrated through experiments in mice that normal skin cells could be reprogrammed to an embryonic state. Prior to this embryonic stem cells were created by implanting DNA into an egg, which would then grow to provide a supply of stem cells. This earlier technique involved the destruction of a viable embryo. The scientists found the trick was to add four genes to a somatic cell's existing complement of DNA. These genes code for a set of proteins that prompt the cell to exhibit embryonic properties. The research was carried out by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University and James Thomson at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. 2007-06-06T00:00:00+0000The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority allowed for the fusion of human-animal embryos, also known as chimeras, to create stem cells. 2007-09-05T00:00:00+0000Japanese researchers Shinya Yamanaka and Kazutoshi Takahashi reported the generation of pluripotent stem cells from mature human fibroblasts. It opened the possibility of producing stem cells from almost any other human cell. The rtechnique was published in K Takahashi, K Tanabe, M Onnuki, et al 'Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors', Cell, 131/5 (2007), 861-72.2007-11-30T00:00:00+00002008-01-01T00:00:00+0000A team of scientists led by George Q Daley at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute reported the creation of stem cells for 10 genetic disorders that will enable researchers to watch diseases develop in a lab dish. The researchers used ordinary skin cells and bone marrow from people with a variety of diseases, including Parkinson's, Huntington's and Down syndrome to produce the stem cells. They published their results in I H Park, et al, 'Disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells', Cell, 134/5 (2008), 877-86.2008-09-05T00:00:00+0000Palade was a Romanian-American cell biologist who helped determine cell function and organisation. He and colleagues demonstrated that all plant cells and some animal and bacteria cells have a vacuole, an enclosed compartment in the cell membrane, which contains enzymes essential to maintaining the cell's health. In 1974 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his innovations in electron microscopy and cell fractionation, which laid the foundation for molecular cell biology, and his discovery of the ribosomes of endoplastic reticulum in 1955. 2008-10-07T00:00:00+00002009-01-01T00:00:00+00002009-01-01T00:00:00+0000Study published in the journal Stem Cells reports that transplanting stem cells from the lining of the spinal cord reverses paralysis associated with spinal cord injuries in animal tests. The transplanted cells regenerated 10 times faster in animals with spinal cord injuries than in healthy animals. V. Moreno-Manzano et al, 'Activated Spinal Cord Ependymal Stem Cells Rescue Neurological Function', Stem Cells, 27 (2008), 733-43, DOI: 10.1002/stem.242009-01-28T00:00:00+0000Canadian researchers report in Nature the generation of embryonic-like stem cells from adult human tissue, arguing the process could eventually cure diseases like spinal cord injuries and Parkinson's.2009-03-01T00:00:00+0000Obama's order cleared the way for federal funding of research using embryonic stem cells. This expanded the number of stem cell lines available to researchers from 20 to about 700.2009-03-09T00:00:00+0000Meta-analysis of prospective trials with 6007 patients showed stem cell transplants improved the survival rates of people with acute myeloid leukaemia (the most common form of acute leukaemia) and advocated the use of stem cell transplants become a standard treatment for some patients. J. Koreth et al, 'Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission: systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective clinical trials', JAMA, 301/22 (2009), 349-61. 2009-06-10T00:00:00+00002010-01-01T00:00:00+00002010-01-01T00:00:00+00002010-01-01T00:00:00+0000J.N. Kochenderfer,et al, Blood, 116/20 (2010); M. Kalos, et al, Sci Tranl Med, 5 (2013), 95ra73; R.J. Brentijens et al, Science Translational Medicine, 5/177 (2013), 177ra882010-01-01T00:00:00+00002011-01-01T00:00:00+0000Allers, K, Hutter, G, Hofmann, J, Loddenkemper, C, Rieger, K, Thiel, E, et al,'Evidence for the cure of HIV infection by CCR5?32/?32 stem cell transplantation', Blood, 117/10, (2011): 2791–99.2011-03-10T00:00:00+0000US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia lifted a lower-court injunction, opening the way to resume federal funding of research on embryonic stem cells.2011-04-29T00:00:00+0000The first patient to receive the therapy was Sue Freeman, a 78 year old, diagnosed with AMD. The study, approved by the FDA, was designed to test the treatment's safety, not its effectiveness. The therapy involved injecting retinal cells derived from embryonic stem cells into the eyes of patients suffering from dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and Stargardt’s macular dystrophy, leading causes of blindness in the elderly and children, respectively. 2011-07-14T00:00:00+00002012-01-01T00:00:00+0000Emily Whitehead, aged 6, was the first child ever to be given the genetically altered T cells. She experienced severe side effects, including raging fever, dramatic drop in blood pressure, lung congestion, but emerged cancer free. Treatment was led by Carl June. Engineering the T cells was estimated to cost $20,000 per patient. 2012-04-01T00:00:00+0000Huxley was and English physiologist an biophysicist who helped uncover the mechanism of muscle contraction in 1954 through experiments on the giant axon of the Atlantic Squid. His study of muscle fibres was helped by his development of interference microscopy. Huxley shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1963 for 'discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane'. 2012-05-30T00:00:00+0000Levi-Montalcini is best known for sharing the Nobel Prize in 1986 for helping to discover and isolate the nerve growth factor which helps regulate the growth, maintenance, proliferation and survival of certian neurons. Banned by Mussolini from working in academia because she was Jewish, Levi-Montalcini conducted much of her early work in a makeshift laboratory in her bedroom. She later became the director of the Research Center of Neurobiology and the Laboratory of Cellular Biology in Washington University and founded the European Brain Research Institute. 2012-12-30T00:00:00+0000de Duve was a cytologist and biochemist. The son of Belgian refugees who fled to England during World War I, de Duve is associated with the discovery of peroxisome and lysosome in the 1950s and 1960s. They are two specialised subunits found within the cell and are vital to the function of the cell. His work paved the way to unravelling the biology of several genetic diseases. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1974 on the back of his 'discoveries concerning the structural and functional organisation of the cell.'2013-05-04T00:00:00+0000The study used induced pluripotent stem cells in six patient with advanced AMD. 2014-01-01T00:00:00+0000Scientists at the University of Nottingham lwed by Kevin Shakesheff announced the development of a new stem cell micro-environment which allows for the self-renewal of cells and their evolution into cardiomyocyte (heart) cells. The new technique opens up new avenues for exploring the development of stem cells for therapy. The work was published in J E Dixon, D A Shah, et al, 'Combined hydrogels that switch human pluripotent stem cells from self-renewal to differentiation', PNAS, 111/15 (2014), 5580-85, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1319685111.2014-03-31T00:00:00+0000Researchers at the Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, reported the generation of stem cells by putting the nucelus of an adult skin cell inside an egg that went through the initial stages of embryonic development. YG Chung, JH Eum, JE Lee, SH Shim, V Sepilian, S W Hong, Y Lee, NR Treff, Y H Choi, EA Kimbrel, R Dittman, R Lonza, DR Lee, 'Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Using Adult Cells', Cell Stem Cell, 14/6 (2014), 777-80.2014-06-05T00:00:00+0000Paralysed patient able to walk after his spinal cord was treated with olifactory ensheathing cells, specialist cells that aid the sense of smell, taken from his nose. The treatment was developed by Geoff Raisman and colleagues at University College London's Institute of Neurology together with Pawel Tabakow at Wroclaw Medical University. The research was supported by the Nicholls Spinal Injury Foundation and the UK Stem Cell Foundation. 2014-10-21T00:00:00+0000More than 82 per cent of the patients went into remission. 2015-04-01T00:00:00+0000Rose was an American biochemist who shared the 2004 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for contributing to understandings about how cells break down proteins. He first became interested in the puzzle of how cells identify and destroy unwanted proteins in the 1950s. In the late 1970s he showed that ubiquitin, a protein present in countless tissues, helped tag other proteins that needed to be destroyed. It would then attach itself to another protein that was no longer functioning and take it to the proteasome chamber to be broken down and recycled. Rose also helped in the development of a drug to treat multiple myeloma, a blood cancer. The drug works by disrupting the protein disposal mechanism and kills the cancer cells with a pile-up of protein. 2015-06-03T00:00:00+0000The operation was carried out at Moorfield Eye Hospital, London. It involved transplanting eye cells, called retinal pigment epithelieum, which were derived from stem cells. The surgery was performed by Lyndon Da Cruz as part of the London Project to Cure Blindness, a collaboration between Moorfields, the UCL Institute of Optahalmology and the National Institute for Health Research. 2015-09-29T00:00:00+0000Trial aimed at assessing the use of stem cells, grown from donated human bone marrow, to slow down or stop tissue damage in kidneys in diabetic patients. The project is led by Timothy O'Brien from the National University of Ireland and funded by 6 million Euro grant from European Union Horizon 2020 programme. 2015-10-20T00:00:00+0000Gilman was an American pharmacologist and biochemist who shared the 1994 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering G-proteins and their role in signal transduction within cells. This was based on seminal research he conducted with mutant cells at the University of Virginia in the 1970s. G-Proteins were named as such because they become activated when bound to a molecule called guanosine tripsphate.2015-12-23T00:00:00+0000The research was conducted by scientists at the University of Warwick who studied tissue samples donated by 183 patients at the Imlantation Research Clinic in Coventry. The finding opened up new possibilities for developing stem cell based treatments for the prevention of miscarriage. E. S. Lucas et al, 'Loss of endometrial plasticity in recurrent pregnancy loss', Stem Cells, 34/2 (2016), 346-56. 2016-03-08T00:00:00+0000The infants received the therapy to regenerate healthy lenses in their eyes as part of a small scale trial carried out by Kang Zhang and his team at the Shiley Institute of the University of California in San Diego, together with colleagues in China. The study was published in H. Lin et al, 'Lens regeneration using endogenous stem cells with gain of visual function', Nature, 531 (2016), 323-28.2016-03-09T00:00:00+0000The cells proved capable of differentiating into many cell types, such as nerve, heart, and pancreatic cells, while retaining a single set of chromosomes. It is hoped the cells could help reduce the compexity of identifying genetic abnormalities. The work was done by Dieter Egli of Columbia University, New York, and Nissim Benvenisty, Hebrew University, Jerusalem. It was published in I. Sagi et al, 'Derivation and differentiation of haploid human embryonic stem cells', Nature (2016), doi:10.1038/nature17408.2016-03-17T00:00:00+0000The Karolinksa Institute sacked Paolo Macchiarini for continuing to use his new method in operations even though it showed little or no sign of working. 2016-03-23T00:00:00+0000The procedure, tried out in clinical trials, involved the injection of modified human, adult stem cells from bone marrow directly taken from two donors into the brains of 18 chronic stroke patients. The trials were led by Gary Steinberg at Stanford University School of Medicine. The 18 patients were selected for treatment from 379 patients. Most had suffered a stroke a year before treatment, and had damage to their motor function. Twelve of the patients were treated at Stanford the remaining six were treated at the University of Pittsburgh. A number of the patients previously confined to wheelchairs were able to walk after receiving the treatment. Many of the patients sustained their improvements for more than one year and some for two years. 2016-06-02T00:00:00+0000Stem cells injected into 11 patients undergoing bypass surgery shown to reduce the size of scarred tissue by 40 per cent. K Anatasiadis, et al, Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, 9/3 (June 2016), 202-13.2016-07-24T00:00:00+00002016-10-03T00:00:00+0000PA Muraro, M Pasquini, HL Atkins, et al, 'Long-term Outcomes After Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Multiple Sclerosis', JAMA Neurolology, 20 Feb 2018, doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.58672017-02-20T00:00:00+0000Patient treated with lentiviral vector-mediated addition of a gene into autologous hematopoietic stem cells. JA Ribell, S Hacien-Bey-Abina, E. OPayen, A. Magnani, et al, 'Gene therapy in a patient with sickle cell disease', NEJM, 376 (2017), 848-55.2017-03-02T00:00:00+0000S. Ellys Harrison, B. Sozen, N. Christodoulou, C. Kyprianou, M. Zernicka-Goetz, 'Assembly of embryonic and extra-embryonic stem cells to mimic embryogenesis in vitro', Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aal1810 2017-03-03T00:00:00+0000M. Mandai et al, 'Autologous Induced Stem-Cell–Derived Retinal Cells for Macular Degeneration', NEJM, 376 (2017), 1038-46.2017-03-16T00:00:00+0000The women went blind as a result of the treatment. A.E. Kuriyan et al, 'Vision Loss after Intravitreal Injection of Autologous “Stem Cells” for AMD', NEJM, 376 (2017), 1047-53. 2017-03-16T00:00:00+0000G. Fontana, J. Gershlak, M. Adamski, J-S Lee, S. Matsumoto, H. D. Le, B. Binder, J. Wirth, G. Gaudette, W. L. Murphy, 'Decellularized Plants: Biofunctionalized Plants as Diverse Biomaterials for Human Cell Culture', Advanced Healthcare Materials, DOI: 10.1002/adhm.2017700382017-04-19T00:00:00+0000The drug CTL019 (tisagenlecleucel) was developed by Novartis. Treatment involves removing T cells from the patient and genetically modifying them to increase their capacity to bind to tumour cells in order to get the immune sytem to attack the tumours. It is targeted at children and young adults from three to 25 years old who have not responded to traditional treatments.2017-07-12T00:00:00+0000The drug Kymriah (tisagenlecleucel) is the first gene therapy to become available in the US. 2017-08-30T00:00:00+0000Total of 17 boys treated in clinical trial, of which 15 showed marked improvement. Treatment used a modified form of HIV as the vector for infusing corrective genes to generate glial cells. F. Eichler, C. Duncan etl al, 'Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Gene Therapy for Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy', NEJM, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa17005542017-10-04T00:00:00+0000CTJ van Velthoven, A de Morree, I M Enger, J O Brett, T A Rando, 'Transcriptional Profiling of Quiescent Muscle Stem Cells In Vivo', Cell Reports, 21/1 (2017), 1994-2004. 2017-11-14T00:00:00+0000Sulston was a biologist. He played a central role in sequencing the genome of the Caenorhabditis elegans, a transparent nematode (roundworm). It was the first animal to have its genome sequenced. Based on his work with the nematode Sulston helped set up the project to sequence the human genome which he did as director of the Sanger Centre. The first draft of the human genome sequence was completed in 2000. In 2002 he shared the Nobel Prize for identifying how genes regulate the life cycle of cells through apoptosis. 2018-03-09T00:00:00+0000Skou was a Danish biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1997 for discovering an ion-transporting enzyme called sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-K+ ATPase), which is found in the plasma membrane of animal cells. The enzyme is important to the transport of molecules through a cell's membrane. Skou made the discovery in the late 1950s. A number of other similar ATPase-based enzymes were discovered later, including one that helps control muscle contraction.2018-05-28T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places
28 Jul 1635Robert Hooke was born Freshwater, Isle of WightHooke 
1663First time the cell described as a basic unit of lifeHookeRoyal Society
3 Mar 1703Robert Hooke diedHooke 
5 Apr 1804Matthias J Schleiden was bornSchleiden University of Jena
7 Dec 1810Theodor Schwann was born in Neuss, GermanySchwannUniversity of Liege
21 Apr 1843Walther Flemming was born in Schwerin, GermanyFlemmingUniversity of Kiel
5 Mar 1846Edouard van Beneden was born in Leuven, Belgianvan Beneden University of Liege
20 Jun 1861Frederick Gowland Hopkins was born in Eastbourne, United KingdomHopkinsCambridge University
1866Theory that cell's nucleus contains genetic substanceHaeckelUniversity of Jena
23 Jun 1881Matthias J Schleiden diedSchleiden University of Jena
1882Concept of the stem cell is put forward for the first timeHaeckel, Dantchakoff, Pappenheim, Ehrlich, MaximowUniversity of Jena, Charite Hospital, Koch Institute, Petrograd University
11 Jan 1884Theodor Schwann diedSchwannUniversity of Liege
1890 - 1930Debate begins over whether one stem cell provides supply of new cells for the entire blood system or if there is a different stem cell for each constituent cell lineage of the blood system Bloom, MaximowUniversity of Chicago, Petrograd University
16 Sep 1893Albert Szent-Gyorgyi was born in Budapest, Austria-Hungary (now Hungary)Szent-Gyorgyi Szeged University, National Institutes of Health
24 Aug 1898Albert Claude was born in Longlier, BelgiumClaudeRockefeller Institute, Jules Bordet Institute, University of Brussels
4 Aug 1905Walther Flemming diedFlemmingUniversity of Kiel
1908The term 'stem cell' is coinedMaximovPetrograd University
22 Apr 1909Rita Levi-Montalcini was born in Turin, ItalyLevi-MontalciniWashington University
28 Apr 1910Edouard van Beneden diedvan Beneden University of Liege
11 Jun 1912Keith Roberts Porter was born in Yarmough, Nova Scotia, CanadaPorterHarvard University, University of Colorado
19 Nov 1912George E Palade was born in Iasi, RomaniaPaladeRockefeller University
18 Dec 1912Daniel Mazia was born Scranton, PA, USAMaziaUniversity of California Berkeley
19 Nov 1915Earl W Sutherland was born in Burlingame, Kansas, USASutherlandVanderbilt University
2 Oct 1917Christian R de Duve was born in Thames Ditton, United Kingdomde DuveRockefeller University
22 Nov 1917Andrew F Huxley was born in Hampstead, United KingdomHuxleyCambridge University, University College London
6 Jun 1918Hans Adolf Krebs was born in Hildesheim, GermanyKrebsUniversity of Freiburg, Cambridge University, Sheffield University, Oxford University
17 Nov 1922Stanley Cohen was born in Brooklyn, NY, USACohenVanderbilt University
1 Dec 1925Martin Rodbell was born in Baltimore MD, USARodbellNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
16 Jul 1926Irwin Rose was born in Brooklyn NY, USARoseUniversity of California Irvine
30 Oct 1939Leland H Hartwell was born in Los Angeles, CA, USAHartwellFred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
1 Jul 1941Alfred G Gilman was born in New Haven, Connecticut, USAGilmanUniversity of Virginia
1942 - 1945Animal experiments launched to investigate the biological effects of acute and chronic exposure to different forms and intensities of ionising radiationJacobson, Zirkle, Bloom University of Chicago
1942 - 1945One part of the blood system, the spleen, offers some form of protection against radiation damageJacobsonUniversity of Chicago
27 Mar 1942John E Sulston born in Cambridge, United KingdomSulstonLaboratory of Molecular Biology
1945Research continues into the damaging effects of ionising radiation upon the blood system - the tissue most sensitive to radiation effectsJacobson, LorenzUniversity of Chicago, National Cancer Institute, MRC RRU
1945Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) foundedAERE
1947Medical Research Council Radiobiological Unit (MRC RU) establishedLoutit, Ford, BarnesMRC RRU
16 May 1947Frederick Gowland Hopkins diedHopkinsCambridge University
1949First experiments transplanting spleen from non-radiated mice into radiated miceJacobson, Marks, GastonUniversity of Chicago
25 Jan 1949Paul M Nurse was born in Norwich, United KingdomNurseImperial Cancer Research Fund
23 Mar 1950Hubert Schoemaker was born in Deventer, The NetherlandsSchoemakerDeventer, The Netherlands
1951 - 1956Debate about whether the 'recovery factor' present in the spleen and marrow is a hormone or a cellJacobson, Lorenz, Loutit, CongdonUniversity of Chicago, National Cancer Institute, MRC RRU
1951Transfer of marrow into lethally irradiated mice shows that marrow, like spleen, is regenerativeLorenz, Congdon, UphoffNational Cancer Institute
1956Experiments with mice confirm radiation recovery factor is a distinctive cellLoutit, Ford, Barnes, HamertonMRC RRU
1956Mice with leukaemia treated successfully with lethal radiation followed by bone marrow transplantLoutit, Barnes MRC RRU
January 1957First report of bone marrow transplants performed in human (cancer) patientsThomas, Lochte, Lu, FerrebeeBassett Medical Center
1959Infused allogeneic bone marrow in accidentally irradiated workers shown to give rise to mature blood cellsMatheHopital Saint Louis
1959Bone marrow transplants in two sets of identical twin girls fails to eradicate leukaemiaThomas, Ferrebee, Sahler Bassett Medical Center
1959Experiments in mice prove the existence of resident blood stem cells in marrowThomas Bassett Medical Center
1960Bone marrow transplants being undermined by immunological reactions (especially graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD))ThomasBassett Medical Center
1961Existence and properties of transplantable stem cells in mouse bone marrow established and the first methodology for counting them is devisedJames, Till, McCulloch, Siminovitch, Becker, Wu, FowleOntario Cancer Institute
1961Normal cell population discovered to only be able to divide a limited number of times before it stopsHayflickWistar Institute
1962 - 1965Bone marrow transplants in humans abandoned by Thomas group due to graft-versus-host-diseaseThomas Bassett Medical Center
1962Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggsGurdon, AltmanCambridge University
June 1962Green fluorescent protein discovered in jellyfish, providing tool for observing previously invisible cellular processesShimomura, Johnson, SaigaPrinceton University
1964Immune lymphocytes first proposed as possible tool for adoptive cellular therapyDelome, Alexander Chester Beatty Research Institute, Institute of Cancer Research
1965First successful allogeneic marrow transplant reported in patient with leukaemiaMatheInstitute of Cancer and Immunotherapeutics
1965Distinctive and powerfully regenerative cell resident in bone marrow, known from now on as stem cells 
1965Paterson Institute for Cancer Research established as a major centre for blood stem cell researchLajtha, Schofield, Lord, Dexter, PatersonPaterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Cancer Hosptial
1965Development of a technique for the in vitro cultivation of bone marrow cellsMetcalf, Bradley, Sachs, PluznikQueen Elizabeth II Hospital, Weizmann Institute
1968First successful bone marrow transplant from a siblingGoodMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
1969Concept of the tumour stem cell is bornFialkow, Pierce, Hamburger, Salmon, Nowell, Damjanov, SolterUniversity of Washington in Seattle
1970Blood stem cell proves highly elusive as it is difficult to isolate and visualise 
1971Cetus Corporation, the first biotechnology was foundedCape, Farley, GlaserCetus
1973First successful bone marrow transplant from unrelated donorGood, O'ReillyMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
9 Mar 1974Earl W Sutherland diedSutherlandVanderbilt University
1975A liquid media is developed for growing bone marrow cells, including the blood stem cellDexterPaterson Institute for Cancer Research
1977Bone marrow transplants is clinically provenDonnallFred Hutchinson, Seattle, New York
1978Transplantable stem cells discovered in human cord bloodEvansCambridge University
1980 - 1990Existence of the blood stem cell contestedDexter, Lord, Weissmann, Morrison
1980Depleting suppressive immune cells with IL-2 shown to enhance adoptive cellular therapy 
9 Jul 1981Mouse embryonic stem cells first isolated and cultured in the laboratoryEvans, Kaufman, MartinCambridge University
22 Nov 1981Hans Adolf Krebs diedKrebsUniversity of Freiburg, Cambridge University, Sheffield University, Oxford University
December 1981Another method published for cultivating mouse embryonic stem cellsMartinUniversity of California San Francisco
1982Leukaemia emerges as a key means for understanding of the role of the stem cell in cancerDick, LapidotOntario Cancer Institute
1982Amcell, a private biotechnology company, is formed to commercialise blood stem cells 
1982Marrow stem cells shown to be distinct from progenitor cells  
1982AIS, the first biotechnology company to commercialise blood stem cell-based innovation is establishedAIS
June 1982Steven Rosenberg and colleagues first describe lymphokine-activated killer cellsGrimm, Mazumder, Zhang, RosenbergNational Cancer Institute
22 May 1983Albert Claude died ClaudeRockefeller Institute, Jules Bordet Institute, University of Brussels
1984A molecular marker, CD34, is identified as specific for a subset of marrow cells containing the blood stem cellCivinJohns Hopkins
1984 - 1996Ongoing litigation between CellPro and Baxter Healthcare Corporation over the use of the CD34 marker for cell separation technologyCellPro, Baxter Healthcare
1984CD34 marker used as the basis for cell separation technology 
1984Blood stem cells extensively purified for first time 
1984Experiments show that injections with T-cell growth factor interleukin-2 can shrink tumours in humansRosenbergNational Cancer Institute
December 1985IL-2 based immunotherapy shown to reduce tumours in patients with melanoma and renal cell cancerRosenbergNational Cancer Institute
1986National Marrow Donor Programme established in US 
19 Sep 1986Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes shown in mice to be 50 to 100 times more effective in therapeutic potency than lymphokine-activated killer cellsRosenberg, Spiess, LafrieniereNational Cancer Institute
22 Oct 1986Albert Szent-Gyorgyi von Nagyrapolt diedSzent-Gyorgyi Szeged University, National Institutes of Health
December 1986Anti-tumour responses observed in 3 out of 10 patients given high-doses of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Rosenberg, Lotze, Chang, Seipp, Simpson, VettoNational Cancer Institute
1987First clinical trials of foetal neural cell grafting in patients with Parkinson’s diseaseBjorklund, Lindvall Lund University
1987CellPro, the second biotechnology company is formed to commercialise blood stem cellsCellPro
9 Apr 1987Successful results reported for trial using the cytokine IL-2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells to treat cancerRosenbergNational Cancer Institute
1988First reported clinical use of umbilical cord bloodBroxmeyerIndiana University
1988SyStemix, the third biotechnology company is established to commercialise blood stem cellsSystemix
1 Jul 1988The first hematopoietic stem cells were isolated in miceSpangrude, Heimfeld, WeissmanStanford University
22 Dec 19889 out of 15 melanoma patients successfully treated with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes cultured with the cytokine IL-2RosenbergNational Cancer Institute
1989Aastrom, a private biotechnology company is formed to commercialise blood stem cells 
May 1989First human test demonstrated safety of retroviral vector for gene therapy and potential of laboratory produced tumor killing cells for cancer immunotherapyAnderson, RosenbergNational Institutes of Health
December 1989Concept of enhancing T cells using chimeric antigen receptors published for first timeGross, Waks, EshharWeizmann Institute
1990Some companies attempt, but do not succeed, to develop blood stem cell-based businessBaxter Healthcare
1990Discovery of the nesting gene, the most commonly used marker for neural stem cellsLendahlKarolinska Institutet
1990Mouse marrow regenerating stem cells are completely separated from in vivo colony-forming cells for first time 
January 1990Gene therapy concept proven in first human trialsKasid, Morecki, Aebersold, Cornetta, Culver, Freeman, Director, Lotze, Blaese, AndersonNational Cancer Institute
30 Aug 1990Treatment with gene modified tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes shown to be promising immunotherapy for patients with advance melanomaRosenberg, Aebersold, Cornetta, Kasid, Morgan, Moen, Karson, Lotze, Yang, Topalian, Merino, Culver, Miller, Blaese, AndersonNational Cancer Institute
1992First public bank set up for umbilical cord blood bank in New YorkRubinsteinNew York Blood Center
1992Neural stem cells identified in the adult human brain 
1992Progenitor, a private biotechnology company is formed to commercialise blood stem cells 
1992Stem cells used as vectors to deliver the genes needed to correct the genetic disorder SCIDBordignonVita-Salute San Raffaele University
1993Embryonic stem cells are proven to be pluripotent; having the ability to differentiate into different cell types 
15 Jan 1993Chimeric receptor genes added to T lymphocytes shown to enhance power of adoptive cellular therapy against tumoursEshhar, Waks, Gross, SchindlerWeizmann Institute
1994First separation of cancer stem cells from the majority of cells in a cancer  
1994Patients with damaged corneas successfully treated with corneal stem cells  
1994Cancer stem cell theory advancedDickOntario Cancer Institute
1994Experiments in adult rats indicate olifactory ensheathing cells could regenerate injured dorsal root axons in spinal cordRamon-Cueto, Nieto-SampedroInstituto Cajal
1995First derivation of primate embryonic stem cell lines  
1996First reports that blood stem cell might be able to give rise to cells other than those of the blood systemBlau, Lagasse, Lemischka, Morrison, Thiese, Krause, Gussoni, Bjornson 
1996 - 2002Experiments with rats conducted by different research teams around the world confirm olifactory ensheathing cells help repair spinal cordSmale, Li, Imaizumi, Guntinas-Lichius, Nash, RuitenbergQueen's University, University College London, Yale University, University of Cologne, University of the Health Sciences, Netherlands Institute for Brain Research
January 1996Dolly the sheep was cloned by Professor Ian Wilmut's team at the Roslin Institute in EdinburghWilmutRoslin Institute
9 Jun 1996Daniel Mazia diedMaziaUniversity of California Berkeley
5 Jul 1996Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was bornWilmut, CampbellRoslin Institute
2 May 1997Keith Roberts Porter diedPorterHarvard University, University of Colorado
1998Human brain demonstrated to contain cells with stem-like propertiesEriksson, GageSahlgrenska University Hospital, Salk Institute
October 1998First human embryonic stem cell line derived Thomson, Itskovitz-Eldor, Shapiro, Waknitz, Swiergiel, Marshall, JonesUniversity of Wisconsin-Madison
7 Dec 1998Martin Rodbell diedRodbellNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
1999Adult neural stem cells identified as capable of forming new neural stem cellsFrisenKarolinska Institutet
1999Neuronyx foundedSchoemaker 
2000Adult stem cells recognised as having potential to generate variety of cells for other organsFrisenKarolinska Institutet
2000Retinal stem cells identified in mice  
5 Dec 2000Wisdom teeth demonstrated to be source of stem cellsShi, Gronthos, Mankani, Brahim, Gehron RobeyNIH
2001The Stem Cell Network is formed  
2001Dermal stem cells identified in adult skin tissue  
9 Aug 2001US places restricitions on embryonic stem cell research 
October 2001Human embryo cloned to make stem cellsAdvanced Cell Technology
2002International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISCF) established 
2002First complete purification of multipotent marrow stem cells from mice 
4 Mar 2002Canadian Institutes of Health Research unveiled guidelines for stem cell research 
2003Cancer stem cells isolated in human brain tumours Singh 
January 2003Rare human breast cancer stem cells identified Al-Hajj 
14 Feb 2003Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal diedWilmutRoslin Institute
13 May 2003Dental pulp from baby teeth demonstrated to be source for stem cellsShi, Miura, Gronthos, Zhao, Lu, Fisher, Gehron Robey, NIH
2004First derivation of dopaminergic cells from human embryonic stem cells 
2004International Consortium of Stem Cell Networks (ICSCN) initiated 
2005Lasker Prize awarded to James Till and Ernest McCullochTill, McCulloch 
2005First evidence for human bone cancer stem cells  
2005UK Pattison Report emphasizes stem cells as likely potential therapies for the future 
15 Jun 2005Canadian researchers created the country's first embryonic stem cell linesNagySamuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
25 Aug 2005Harvard scientists reported reprogramming adult skin cells into embryonic stem cells Cowan, Eggan, Melton, AlienzaHarvard Stem Cell Institute
2006Normal mammary stem cells demonstrated in adult mice  
1 Jan 2006Hubert Schoemaker died in Philadelphia, USASchoemaker 
12 Jan 2006First successful cloning of human embryo to make stem cellsLanza, Chung, Klimanskaya, Becker, Marh, Lu, Johnson, MeisnerAdvanced Cell Technology
June 2006Four genes identified as important for reprogramming cellsYamanakaKyoto University
6 Oct 2006Genetically engineered lymphocytes shown to be promising cancer treatmentMorgan, Dudley, Wunderlich, Hughes, Yang, Sherry, Royal, Topalian, Kammula, Restifo, Zheng, Nahvi Vries, Rogers-Freezer, Mavroukakis, RosenbergNational Cancer Institute
15 Oct 2006Adoptive cellular therapy using chimeric antigen receptor T cells shown to be safe in small group of patients with ovarian cancerKershaw, Westwood, Parker, Wang, Eshhar, Mavroukakis, White, Wunderlich, Canevari, Rogers-Freezer, Chen, Yang, Rosenberg, HwuNational Cancer Institute, University of Melbourne, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Weizmann Institute, Istituto Nazionale Tumori
16 Nov 2006Stem cell injections reported to ease symptoms in muscular dystrophy in dogs 
2007Nobel Prize for Physiology for Medicine awarded for discoveries enabling germline gene modification in mice using embryonic stem cellsCapecchi, Evans, SmithiesUniversity of North Carolina, University of Utah
2007First physical identification and localization of mammalian intestinal stem cells  
2007First evidence for human colon cancer stem cells  
January 2007Scientists isolated new stem cell source in amniotic fluidDe Coppi, Bartsch, Siddiqui, Xu, Santos, Perin, Mostoslavsky, Serre, Snyder, Yoo, Furth, Soker, Atala 
April 2007Canadian researchers converted normal human blood cells into leukaemia stem cells to investigate leukaemiaDick 
June 2007Skin cells reprogrammed to become like embryonic stem cellsYamanakaKyoto University, University of Wisconsin-Madison
5 Sep 2007British regulators approved human-animal embryo research 
30 Nov 2007Human cells reprogrammed to make pluripotent stem cellsYamanaka, TakahashiKyoto University
2008Gairdner Prize is awarded to Sam Weiss for the discovery of neural stem cellsWeiss 
5 Sep 2008Scientists created stem cells for 10 disordersDaley, Park, Arora, Huo, Maherall, Ahfedt, Shimamura, Lensch, Cowan, HochedlingerHarvard Stem Cell Institute
7 Oct 2008George E Palade diedPaladeRockefeller University
2009Lasker Prize awarded to John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for discoveries in nuclear reprogramming. Yamanaka is also awarded the Gairdner PrizeGurdon, YamanakaCambridge University, Kyoto University
2009Induced pluripotent stem cells created with minimal residual genomic alteration  
January 2009First animal tests suggest stem cells may reverse paralysisMoreno-Manzano, Rodríguez-Jiménez, García-Roselló, Laínez, Erceg, Calvo, Ronaghi, Lloret, Planells-Cases,Sánchez-Puelles, Stojkovic,University of Valencia
March 2009Embryonic like stem cells generated from adult human tissueNagy, WhiteMount Sinai Hospital, Toronto
9 Mar 2009U.S. President Barack Obama reversed restrictions on stem cell research imposed by former President George W. Bush 
10 Jun 2009Stem cell transplants reported to improve survival for leukaemia patientsKoreth, Schlen, Kopecky, Honda, Sierra, Djulbegovic, Wadleigh, DeAngelo, Stone, Sakamaki Appelbaum, Dohner, Antin, Soiffer, CutlerDana Farber Cancer Institute
2010Adult cells reprogrammed into neurons, cardiac muscle and blood cells  
2010Induced pluripotent cells created by transfection of mRNA  
2010First clinical trial of human embryonic-derived stem cells for treatment of spinal cord injury  
2010 - 2013Studies show CD19-specific CAR-modified T cells to be promising treatment in patients with B cell malignanciesKochenderfer, Kalos, BrentjensNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania
2011Isolation of multipotent human blood stem cells capable of forming all cells in the blood system  
10 Mar 2011Patient suffering from acute myeloid leukaemia is cured of HIV-1 after receiving bone marrow stem cells transplanted from donor with mutated CCR5 gene. This awakens interest in developing HIV treatment that renders a patient's cells resistant to HIV-1Allers, Hutter, Hofmann, Loddenkemper, RiegerCharite-University Medicine Berlin
April 2011US funding of embryonic stem cell research permitted 
14 Jul 2011First safety trial launched in humans to test embryonic stem cell therapy to treat blinding diseasesSchwartzUniversity of California Los Angeles
2012John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cellsGurdon, YamanakaCambridge University, Kyoto University
April 2012First child with leukaemia treated with adoptive cell therapy (CAR-T therapy)June, WhiteheadChildren's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania
30 May 2012Andrew F Huxley diedHuxleyCambridge University, University College London
30 Dec 2012Rita Levi-Montalcini diedLevi-MontalciniInstitute of Cell Biology of the CNR
4 May 2013Christian Rene de Duve diedde DuveRockefeller University, Leuven University
2014Japanese scientists completed successful skin-to-eye stem cell transplant in a 70 year old patient with age-related macular degeneration, a blinding disease. 
March 2014Breakthrough for manufacturing stem cellsDixon, Shah, Rogers, Hall, Weston, Parmenter, McNally, Denning, ShakesheffUniversity of Nottingham
5 Jun 2014First embryonic stem cells cloned from a man's skinChung, Eum, Lee, Shim, Sepilian, Hong, Lee, Treff, Choi, Kimbrel, Dittman, LonzaUniversity of Pennsylvania
October 2014Stem cells taken from nose demonstrated to repair spinal cord injury Raisman, TabakowUniversity College London, Wroclaw Medical University
April 2015 - Aug 2016Adoptive cell therapy (CAR-T therapy) trial conducted with 63 leukaemia patients in 11 countriesJuneNovartis
3 Jun 2015Irwin Rose diedRoseUniversity of California Irvine
29 Sep 2015First UK patient recieved experimental stem cell treatment for age-related macular degeneration University College London, National Institute for Health Research
20 Oct 2015UK NHS sets up stem cell factory in Liverpool to supply experimental treatment for people with diabetes 
23 Dec 2015Alfred G Gilman diedGilmanUniversity of Virginia
8 Mar 2016UK scientists link repeated miscarriages to a reduction of stem cells in lining of the wombBrosens, QuenbyUniversity of Warwick
9 Mar 2016A dozen infants born with cataracts reported to regain sight after receiving new stem cell therapyZhangUniversity of California San Diego
17 Mar 2016Scientists announce the first generation of an embryonic stem cell that carries a single copy of the human genome rather than the usual twoEgli, Benvinsty, Sagi, Chia, Golan-Lev, Peretz, Weissbein, Sui, Sauer, YanukkaColumbia University
23 Mar 2016Surgeon involved in world's first trachea transplant made from patient's own stem cells sacked for scientific misconductMacchiariniKarolinska Institute
2 Jun 2016Stem cells reported to provide substantial recovery in patients disabled by strokeSteinbergStanford University
24 Jul 2016Small-scale case study showed power of stem cells to repair damaged scar tissue caused by heart attacksAnastasiadis, Antonitsis, Westaby, Reginald, Sultan, Doumas, Efthimiadis, EvansAHEPA University Hospital, Oxford University, Cardiff University
3 Oct 2016Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine was awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi for discovering how the body's cells destroy and recyle cellular components, a process known as autophagyOhsumi Tokyo Institute of Technology'
20 Feb 2017Data published from 25 centres in 13 countries for 281 patients indicated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can halt the progression of MS disabilityMuraro, Pasquini, AtkinsImperial College
2 Mar 2017Gene therapy reported to successfully reverse sickle cell disease in first patientRibell, Hacien-Bey-Abina, Payen, Magnani, LeboulchUniversity of Paris
3 Mar 2017Cambridge scientists report the development of an aritificial mouse embryo using stem cellsUniversity of Cambridge
16 Mar 2017Study published showing a personalised treatment using a patient's own stem cells effective for treating macular degeneration, a common blinding diseaseMandaiRIKEN Center for Developmental Biology
16 Mar 2017Follow-up of three women given stem cell treatment in 2015 to treat macular degeneration raises concerns KuriyanFlaum Eye Institute
April 2017Researchers at University of Washington-Madison demonstrated the possibility of growing skin, bone marrow and blood vessels using plant scaffolds with stem cellsUniversity of Washington-Madison, Olbrich Botanical Gardens
12 Jul 2017US FDA Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee recommended the approval of the first adoptive cell therapy (CAR-T cell therapy) for B cell acute leukaemiaJuneNovartis, University of Pennsylvania
30 Aug 2017USA FDA approved CAR-T therapy for certain pediatric and young adult patients with a form of acute lymphoblastic leukemiaJuneNovartis, University of Pennsylvania
4 Oct 2017Gene therapy shown in clinical trials to halt progression of adrenoleukodystrophy, a fatal brain disease inherited by boys Eichler, Duncan, WilliamsHarvard University, Bluebird Bio, Boston Children’s Hospital
14 Nov 2017Stem cells in the body found to have significantly different gene-expression profile than stem cells isolated and cultivated in the laboratory van Velthoven, de Morree, Enger, Brett, Rando, Stanford University
9 Mar 2018John E Sulson diedSulstonLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Sanger Institute
28 May 2018Jens C Skou diedSkouAarhus University

28 Jul 1635

Robert Hooke was born Freshwater, Isle of Wight

1663

First time the cell described as a basic unit of life

3 Mar 1703

Robert Hooke died

5 Apr 1804

Matthias J Schleiden was born

7 Dec 1810

Theodor Schwann was born in Neuss, Germany

21 Apr 1843

Walther Flemming was born in Schwerin, Germany

5 Mar 1846

Edouard van Beneden was born in Leuven, Belgian

20 Jun 1861

Frederick Gowland Hopkins was born in Eastbourne, United Kingdom

1866

Theory that cell's nucleus contains genetic substance

23 Jun 1881

Matthias J Schleiden died

1882

Concept of the stem cell is put forward for the first time

11 Jan 1884

Theodor Schwann died

1890 - 1930

Debate begins over whether one stem cell provides supply of new cells for the entire blood system or if there is a different stem cell for each constituent cell lineage of the blood system

16 Sep 1893

Albert Szent-Gyorgyi was born in Budapest, Austria-Hungary (now Hungary)

24 Aug 1898

Albert Claude was born in Longlier, Belgium

4 Aug 1905

Walther Flemming died

1908

The term 'stem cell' is coined

22 Apr 1909

Rita Levi-Montalcini was born in Turin, Italy

28 Apr 1910

Edouard van Beneden died

11 Jun 1912

Keith Roberts Porter was born in Yarmough, Nova Scotia, Canada

19 Nov 1912

George E Palade was born in Iasi, Romania

18 Dec 1912

Daniel Mazia was born Scranton, PA, USA

19 Nov 1915

Earl W Sutherland was born in Burlingame, Kansas, USA

2 Oct 1917

Christian R de Duve was born in Thames Ditton, United Kingdom

22 Nov 1917

Andrew F Huxley was born in Hampstead, United Kingdom

6 Jun 1918

Hans Adolf Krebs was born in Hildesheim, Germany

17 Nov 1922

Stanley Cohen was born in Brooklyn, NY, USA

1 Dec 1925

Martin Rodbell was born in Baltimore MD, USA

16 Jul 1926

Irwin Rose was born in Brooklyn NY, USA

30 Oct 1939

Leland H Hartwell was born in Los Angeles, CA, USA

1 Jul 1941

Alfred G Gilman was born in New Haven, Connecticut, USA

1942 - 1945

Animal experiments launched to investigate the biological effects of acute and chronic exposure to different forms and intensities of ionising radiation

1942 - 1945

One part of the blood system, the spleen, offers some form of protection against radiation damage

27 Mar 1942

John E Sulston born in Cambridge, United Kingdom

1945

Research continues into the damaging effects of ionising radiation upon the blood system - the tissue most sensitive to radiation effects

1945

Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) founded

1947

Medical Research Council Radiobiological Unit (MRC RU) established

16 May 1947

Frederick Gowland Hopkins died

1949

First experiments transplanting spleen from non-radiated mice into radiated mice

25 Jan 1949

Paul M Nurse was born in Norwich, United Kingdom

23 Mar 1950

Hubert Schoemaker was born in Deventer, The Netherlands

1951 - 1956

Debate about whether the 'recovery factor' present in the spleen and marrow is a hormone or a cell

1951

Transfer of marrow into lethally irradiated mice shows that marrow, like spleen, is regenerative

1956

Experiments with mice confirm radiation recovery factor is a distinctive cell

1956

Mice with leukaemia treated successfully with lethal radiation followed by bone marrow transplant

Jan 1957

First report of bone marrow transplants performed in human (cancer) patients

1959

Infused allogeneic bone marrow in accidentally irradiated workers shown to give rise to mature blood cells

1959

Bone marrow transplants in two sets of identical twin girls fails to eradicate leukaemia

1959

Experiments in mice prove the existence of resident blood stem cells in marrow

1960

Bone marrow transplants being undermined by immunological reactions (especially graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD))

1961

Existence and properties of transplantable stem cells in mouse bone marrow established and the first methodology for counting them is devised

1961

Normal cell population discovered to only be able to divide a limited number of times before it stops

1962 - 1965

Bone marrow transplants in humans abandoned by Thomas group due to graft-versus-host-disease

1962

Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggs

Jun 1962

Green fluorescent protein discovered in jellyfish, providing tool for observing previously invisible cellular processes

1964

Immune lymphocytes first proposed as possible tool for adoptive cellular therapy

1965

First successful allogeneic marrow transplant reported in patient with leukaemia

1965

Distinctive and powerfully regenerative cell resident in bone marrow, known from now on as stem cells

1965

Paterson Institute for Cancer Research established as a major centre for blood stem cell research

1965

Development of a technique for the in vitro cultivation of bone marrow cells

1968

First successful bone marrow transplant from a sibling

1969

Concept of the tumour stem cell is born

1970

Blood stem cell proves highly elusive as it is difficult to isolate and visualise

1971

Cetus Corporation, the first biotechnology was founded

1973

First successful bone marrow transplant from unrelated donor

9 Mar 1974

Earl W Sutherland died

1975

A liquid media is developed for growing bone marrow cells, including the blood stem cell

1977

Bone marrow transplants is clinically proven

1978

Transplantable stem cells discovered in human cord blood

1980 - 1990

Existence of the blood stem cell contested

1980

Depleting suppressive immune cells with IL-2 shown to enhance adoptive cellular therapy

9 Jul 1981

Mouse embryonic stem cells first isolated and cultured in the laboratory

22 Nov 1981

Hans Adolf Krebs died

Dec 1981

Another method published for cultivating mouse embryonic stem cells

1982

Leukaemia emerges as a key means for understanding of the role of the stem cell in cancer

1982

Amcell, a private biotechnology company, is formed to commercialise blood stem cells

1982

Marrow stem cells shown to be distinct from progenitor cells

1982

AIS, the first biotechnology company to commercialise blood stem cell-based innovation is established

Jun 1982

Steven Rosenberg and colleagues first describe lymphokine-activated killer cells

22 May 1983

Albert Claude died

1984

A molecular marker, CD34, is identified as specific for a subset of marrow cells containing the blood stem cell

1984 - 1996

Ongoing litigation between CellPro and Baxter Healthcare Corporation over the use of the CD34 marker for cell separation technology

1984

CD34 marker used as the basis for cell separation technology

1984

Blood stem cells extensively purified for first time

1984

Experiments show that injections with T-cell growth factor interleukin-2 can shrink tumours in humans

Dec 1985

IL-2 based immunotherapy shown to reduce tumours in patients with melanoma and renal cell cancer

1986

National Marrow Donor Programme established in US

19 Sep 1986

Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes shown in mice to be 50 to 100 times more effective in therapeutic potency than lymphokine-activated killer cells

22 Oct 1986

Albert Szent-Gyorgyi von Nagyrapolt died

Dec 1986

Anti-tumour responses observed in 3 out of 10 patients given high-doses of Interleukin-2 (IL-2)

1987

First clinical trials of foetal neural cell grafting in patients with Parkinson’s disease

1987

CellPro, the second biotechnology company is formed to commercialise blood stem cells

9 Apr 1987

Successful results reported for trial using the cytokine IL-2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells to treat cancer

1988

First reported clinical use of umbilical cord blood

1988

SyStemix, the third biotechnology company is established to commercialise blood stem cells

1 Jul 1988

The first hematopoietic stem cells were isolated in mice

22 Dec 1988

9 out of 15 melanoma patients successfully treated with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes cultured with the cytokine IL-2

1989

Aastrom, a private biotechnology company is formed to commercialise blood stem cells

May 1989

First human test demonstrated safety of retroviral vector for gene therapy and potential of laboratory produced tumor killing cells for cancer immunotherapy

Dec 1989

Concept of enhancing T cells using chimeric antigen receptors published for first time

1990

Some companies attempt, but do not succeed, to develop blood stem cell-based business

1990

Discovery of the nesting gene, the most commonly used marker for neural stem cells

1990

Mouse marrow regenerating stem cells are completely separated from in vivo colony-forming cells for first time

Jan 1990

Gene therapy concept proven in first human trials

30 Aug 1990

Treatment with gene modified tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes shown to be promising immunotherapy for patients with advance melanoma

1992

First public bank set up for umbilical cord blood bank in New York

1992

Neural stem cells identified in the adult human brain

1992

Progenitor, a private biotechnology company is formed to commercialise blood stem cells

1992

Stem cells used as vectors to deliver the genes needed to correct the genetic disorder SCID

1993

Embryonic stem cells are proven to be pluripotent; having the ability to differentiate into different cell types

15 Jan 1993

Chimeric receptor genes added to T lymphocytes shown to enhance power of adoptive cellular therapy against tumours

1994

First separation of cancer stem cells from the majority of cells in a cancer

1994

Patients with damaged corneas successfully treated with corneal stem cells

1994

Cancer stem cell theory advanced

1994

Experiments in adult rats indicate olifactory ensheathing cells could regenerate injured dorsal root axons in spinal cord

1995

First derivation of primate embryonic stem cell lines

1996

First reports that blood stem cell might be able to give rise to cells other than those of the blood system

1996 - 2002

Experiments with rats conducted by different research teams around the world confirm olifactory ensheathing cells help repair spinal cord

Jan 1996

Dolly the sheep was cloned by Professor Ian Wilmut's team at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh

9 Jun 1996

Daniel Mazia died

5 Jul 1996

Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal, was born

2 May 1997

Keith Roberts Porter died

1998

Human brain demonstrated to contain cells with stem-like properties

Oct 1998

First human embryonic stem cell line derived

7 Dec 1998

Martin Rodbell died

1999

Adult neural stem cells identified as capable of forming new neural stem cells

1999

Neuronyx founded

2000

Adult stem cells recognised as having potential to generate variety of cells for other organs

2000

Retinal stem cells identified in mice

5 Dec 2000

Wisdom teeth demonstrated to be source of stem cells

2001

The Stem Cell Network is formed

2001

Dermal stem cells identified in adult skin tissue

2001

US places restricitions on embryonic stem cell research

Oct 2001

Human embryo cloned to make stem cells

2002

International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISCF) established

2002

First complete purification of multipotent marrow stem cells from mice

4 Mar 2002

Canadian Institutes of Health Research unveiled guidelines for stem cell research

2003

Cancer stem cells isolated in human brain tumours

Jan 2003

Rare human breast cancer stem cells identified

14 Feb 2003

Dolly the sheep, the first cloned mammal died

13 May 2003

Dental pulp from baby teeth demonstrated to be source for stem cells

2004

First derivation of dopaminergic cells from human embryonic stem cells

2004

International Consortium of Stem Cell Networks (ICSCN) initiated

2005

Lasker Prize awarded to James Till and Ernest McCulloch

2005

First evidence for human bone cancer stem cells

2005

UK Pattison Report emphasizes stem cells as likely potential therapies for the future

15 Jun 2005

Canadian researchers created the country's first embryonic stem cell lines

25 Aug 2005

Harvard scientists reported reprogramming adult skin cells into embryonic stem cells

2006

Normal mammary stem cells demonstrated in adult mice

1 Jan 2006

Hubert Schoemaker died in Philadelphia, USA

12 Jan 2006

First successful cloning of human embryo to make stem cells

Jun 2006

Four genes identified as important for reprogramming cells

6 Oct 2006

Genetically engineered lymphocytes shown to be promising cancer treatment

15 Oct 2006

Adoptive cellular therapy using chimeric antigen receptor T cells shown to be safe in small group of patients with ovarian cancer

16 Nov 2006

Stem cell injections reported to ease symptoms in muscular dystrophy in dogs

2007

Nobel Prize for Physiology for Medicine awarded for discoveries enabling germline gene modification in mice using embryonic stem cells

2007

First physical identification and localization of mammalian intestinal stem cells

2007

First evidence for human colon cancer stem cells

Jan 2007

Scientists isolated new stem cell source in amniotic fluid

Apr 2007

Canadian researchers converted normal human blood cells into leukaemia stem cells to investigate leukaemia

Jun 2007

Skin cells reprogrammed to become like embryonic stem cells

5 Sep 2007

British regulators approved human-animal embryo research

30 Nov 2007

Human cells reprogrammed to make pluripotent stem cells

2008

Gairdner Prize is awarded to Sam Weiss for the discovery of neural stem cells

5 Sep 2008

Scientists created stem cells for 10 disorders

7 Oct 2008

George E Palade died

2009

Lasker Prize awarded to John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for discoveries in nuclear reprogramming. Yamanaka is also awarded the Gairdner Prize

2009

Induced pluripotent stem cells created with minimal residual genomic alteration

Jan 2009

First animal tests suggest stem cells may reverse paralysis

Mar 2009

Embryonic like stem cells generated from adult human tissue

9 Mar 2009

U.S. President Barack Obama reversed restrictions on stem cell research imposed by former President George W. Bush

10 Jun 2009

Stem cell transplants reported to improve survival for leukaemia patients

2010

Adult cells reprogrammed into neurons, cardiac muscle and blood cells

2010

Induced pluripotent cells created by transfection of mRNA

2010

First clinical trial of human embryonic-derived stem cells for treatment of spinal cord injury

2010 - 2013

Studies show CD19-specific CAR-modified T cells to be promising treatment in patients with B cell malignancies

2011

Isolation of multipotent human blood stem cells capable of forming all cells in the blood system

10 Mar 2011

Patient suffering from acute myeloid leukaemia is cured of HIV-1 after receiving bone marrow stem cells transplanted from donor with mutated CCR5 gene. This awakens interest in developing HIV treatment that renders a patient's cells resistant to HIV-1

Apr 2011

US funding of embryonic stem cell research permitted

14 Jul 2011

First safety trial launched in humans to test embryonic stem cell therapy to treat blinding diseases

2012

John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells

Apr 2012

First child with leukaemia treated with adoptive cell therapy (CAR-T therapy)

30 May 2012

Andrew F Huxley died

30 Dec 2012

Rita Levi-Montalcini died

4 May 2013

Christian Rene de Duve died

2014

Japanese scientists completed successful skin-to-eye stem cell transplant in a 70 year old patient with age-related macular degeneration, a blinding disease.

Mar 2014

Breakthrough for manufacturing stem cells

5 Jun 2014

First embryonic stem cells cloned from a man's skin

Oct 2014

Stem cells taken from nose demonstrated to repair spinal cord injury

Apr 2015 - Aug 2016

Adoptive cell therapy (CAR-T therapy) trial conducted with 63 leukaemia patients in 11 countries

3 Jun 2015

Irwin Rose died

29 Sep 2015

First UK patient recieved experimental stem cell treatment for age-related macular degeneration

20 Oct 2015

UK NHS sets up stem cell factory in Liverpool to supply experimental treatment for people with diabetes

23 Dec 2015

Alfred G Gilman died

8 Mar 2016

UK scientists link repeated miscarriages to a reduction of stem cells in lining of the womb

9 Mar 2016

A dozen infants born with cataracts reported to regain sight after receiving new stem cell therapy

17 Mar 2016

Scientists announce the first generation of an embryonic stem cell that carries a single copy of the human genome rather than the usual two

23 Mar 2016

Surgeon involved in world's first trachea transplant made from patient's own stem cells sacked for scientific misconduct

2 Jun 2016

Stem cells reported to provide substantial recovery in patients disabled by stroke

24 Jul 2016

Small-scale case study showed power of stem cells to repair damaged scar tissue caused by heart attacks

3 Oct 2016

Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine was awarded to Yoshinori Ohsumi for discovering how the body's cells destroy and recyle cellular components, a process known as autophagy

20 Feb 2017

Data published from 25 centres in 13 countries for 281 patients indicated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can halt the progression of MS disability

2 Mar 2017

Gene therapy reported to successfully reverse sickle cell disease in first patient

3 Mar 2017

Cambridge scientists report the development of an aritificial mouse embryo using stem cells

16 Mar 2017

Study published showing a personalised treatment using a patient's own stem cells effective for treating macular degeneration, a common blinding disease

16 Mar 2017

Follow-up of three women given stem cell treatment in 2015 to treat macular degeneration raises concerns

Apr 2017

Researchers at University of Washington-Madison demonstrated the possibility of growing skin, bone marrow and blood vessels using plant scaffolds with stem cells

12 Jul 2017

US FDA Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee recommended the approval of the first adoptive cell therapy (CAR-T cell therapy) for B cell acute leukaemia

30 Aug 2017

USA FDA approved CAR-T therapy for certain pediatric and young adult patients with a form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

4 Oct 2017

Gene therapy shown in clinical trials to halt progression of adrenoleukodystrophy, a fatal brain disease inherited by boys

14 Nov 2017

Stem cells in the body found to have significantly different gene-expression profile than stem cells isolated and cultivated in the laboratory

9 Mar 2018

John E Sulson died

28 May 2018

Jens C Skou died