Diagnostics

Diagnostics: timeline of key events

Bordet was a Belgian physician, immunologist and microbiologist. He is best known for winning the 1919 Nobel Prize for his discovery of two components in the blood - antibodies and complement proteins - that help destroy invading bacteria. They do this by rupturing the cell walls of the bacteria, a process known as bacteriolysis. Bordet made the discovery in 1895. He subsequently found, in 1898, that red blood cells from one animal species injected into another get destroyed by haemolysis - a process analogous to bacteriolysis. His research laid the foundation for the development of diagnostic tests that looked for antibodies in the blood to detect infectious agents. The first one was for typhoid, developed in 1896.1870-06-13T00:00:00+0000Yalow was a medical physicist who made her name by helping to develop the radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. RIA uses two reagents. One is a radioisotope atom bound to a molecule of the target substance and the other is an antibody that will bind to the target substance when the two are in contact. Measurements are taken of the initial radioactivity of the mixture which is then added to a measured quantity of fluid, such as blood, that contains low concentrations of an unknown target substance. The test takes advantage of the fact that antibodies prefer to attach to non-radioactive molecules. Measurements are taken of the reduction in radioactivity of the antibody reagent to calculate the concentration of the target substance. The RIA method is now an important component in diagnostic tests, being used to measure the concentration of hormones, vitamins, viruses, enzymes, drugs and other substances. The technique transformed the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes and other hormonal problems related to growth, thyroid function and fertility. It is used to test for phenylketonuria in newborn babies, a rare inherited disorder that if left untreated can lead to intellectual disability, seizures, behavioral problems and mental disorder. In 1977 Yalow became the second woman in history to win the Nobel Prize. It was awarded on the basis of her RIA work. 1921-07-19T00:00:00+0000Ames is a biochemist who in the 1970s developed a biological test that makes it possible to quickly and cheaply identify whether or not a chemical compound is a potential carcinogen. Bacteria are exposed to the test substance and allowed to multiply. Before Ames developed his test carcinogenic testing was reliant on using live animals and was a time-consuming and expensive process. 1928-12-16T00:00:00+0000Originally developed to measure insulin levels, the radioimmunoassay (RIA) provides a highly sensitive means of measuring incredibly low concentrations of many different substances in solutions. It does this by taking advantage of the antigen-antibody reaction and radioactive materials. The technique is now used for a variety of purposes, including screening for the hepatitis virus in blood, determining effective dosage levels of drugs and antibiotics, detecting foreign substances in the blood and correcting hormone levels in infertile couples. RS Yalolw, SA Berson, 'Assay of plasma in human subjects by immunological methods', Nature, 184 (1959), 1648-49. 1959-11-21T00:00:00+0000Bordet was a Belgian physician, immunologist and microbiologist. He is best known for winning the 1919 Nobel Prize for his discovery of two components in the blood - antibodies and complement proteins - that help destroy invading bacteria. They do this by rupturing the cell walls of the bacteria, a process known as bacteriolysis. Bordet made the discovery in 1895. He subsequently found, in 1898, that red blood cells from one animal species injected into another get destroyed by haemolysis - a process analogous to bacteriolysis. His research laid the foundation for the development of diagnostic tests that looked for antibodies in the blood to detect infectious agents. The first one was for typhoid, developed in 1896. 1961-04-06T00:00:00+0000Known as the solid-phase sandwich radioimmunosassay, the test combined the specificity of the biological antigen-antibody interaction with the high sensitivity of modern physicochemical analytical method. It used lablelled antigens or antibodies with radioactive substances such as iodine-15. CM Ling, LR Overby, 'Prevalence of hepatitis B virus antigen as revealed by direct radioimmune assay with 125 I-antibody', Journal Immunology, 20 (1972), 834–41.1972-01-01T00:00:00+00001972-01-01T00:00:00+0000T. Nogtomi, H. Okayama, H. Masubuchi, T. Yonekawa, K. Wantabe, N. Amino, T. Hase, 'Loop-mediated isothermal amplification', Nucleic Acids Research, 28/12 (2000), e63.2000-06-15T00:00:00+0000Yalow was an American medical physicist who made her name by helping to develop the radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. RIA uses two reagents. One is a radioisotope atom bound to a molecule of the target substance and the other is an antibody that will bind to the target substance when the two are in contact. Measurements are taken of the initial radioactivity of the mixture which is then added to a measured quantity of fluid, such as blood, that contains low concentrations of an unknown target substance. The test takes advantage of the fact that antibodies prefer to attach to non-radioactive molecules. Measurements are taken of the reduction in radioactivity of the antibody reagent to calculate the concentration of the target substance. The RIA method is now an important component in diagnostic tests, being used to measure the concentration of hormones, vitamins, viruses, enzymes, drugs and other substances. The technique transformed the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes and other hormonal problems related to growth, thyroid function and fertility. It is used to test for phenylketonuria in newborn babies, a rare inherited disorder that if left untreated can lead to intellectual disability, seizures, behavioral problems and mental disorder. In 1977 Yalow became the second woman in history to win the Nobel Prize. It was awarded on the basis of her RIA work. 2011-05-30T00:00:00+0000The test hunts for 16 gene that regularly arise in cancer and 8 proteins released by tumours. It was trialled in 1,005 patients with cancers of the ovary, liver, stomach, pancreas, oesophagus, colon, lung or breast that had not yet spread to other tissues. J.D. Cohen et al, Detection and localization of surgically resectable cancers with a multi-analyte blood test', Science, 18 Jan 2018, eaar3247, DOI: 10.1126/science.aar3247 2018-01-17T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places
13 Jun 1870Jules Bordet was born in Soignies, BelgiumBordetPasteur Institute
19 Jul 1921Rosalyn Yalow was born in New York, USAYalowVeterans Administration Hospital
16 Dec 1928Bruce N Ames was born in New York, USAAmesUniversity of California Berkeley
21 Nov 1959Rosalyn Yalow and Soloman Berson published the radioimmunoassay method opening up a new era in immunology and diagnosticsYalow, BersonVeterans Administration Hospital
6 Apr 1961Jules Bordet diedBordetPasteur Institute
1 Jan 1972Scientists at Abbott Laboratories published a new highly sensitive test, Austria 125, for detecting hepatitis BLing, OverbyAbbott Laboratories
1972Abbott marketed the first adequate hepatitis B diagnostic testAbbott Laboratories
15 Jun 2000New simpler and cheaper PCR method published opening possibility for use in middle to low-income countriesNogtomi, Okayama, Masubuchi, Yonekawa, Wantabe, AminoUniversity of Tokyo, Osaka University, Eiken Chemical Co
30 May 2011Rosalyn Yalow diedYalowVeterans Administration Hospital
17 Jan 2018Blood test detecting mutated DNA and proteins released by tumours shown to pick up early signs of 8 common cancersCohen, Yuxuan Wang, Thoburn, Afsari, Danilova. Douville, Javed, Wong, Mattox, Hruban, Wolfgang, Goggins, Molin, Wang, Roden, Klein, Ptak, Dobbyn, Schaefer, Silliman, Popoli, Vogelstein, Browne, Schoen, Brand, Tie, Gibbs, Wong, Mansfield, Jen, Hanash, FalcJohns Hopkins University

13 Jun 1870

Jules Bordet was born in Soignies, Belgium

19 Jul 1921

Rosalyn Yalow was born in New York, USA

16 Dec 1928

Bruce N Ames was born in New York, USA

21 Nov 1959

Rosalyn Yalow and Soloman Berson published the radioimmunoassay method opening up a new era in immunology and diagnostics

6 Apr 1961

Jules Bordet died

1 Jan 1972

Scientists at Abbott Laboratories published a new highly sensitive test, Austria 125, for detecting hepatitis B

1972

Abbott marketed the first adequate hepatitis B diagnostic test

15 Jun 2000

New simpler and cheaper PCR method published opening possibility for use in middle to low-income countries

30 May 2011

Rosalyn Yalow died

17 Jan 2018

Blood test detecting mutated DNA and proteins released by tumours shown to pick up early signs of 8 common cancers