Nutrition

Nutrition: timeline of key events

Eijkman was a physician and physiologist who helped demonstrate that a poor diet contributes to beriberi, a disease of the peripheral nerves. He first noticed the link in 1897 when by mistake his laboratory chickens were fed a diet of polished, rather than unpolished, rice. Ill-health prevented Eijkman from pinpointing which missing dietary component was important. It was subsequently found that a deficiency of vitamin B1, thiamine, contributed to beriberi. Eijkman shared the Nobel Prize in 1929 for his work in this field. 1858-08-11T00:00:00+0000Mendel was a biochemist who helped discover vitamins A and B, lysine and tryptophan and their role in nutrition. Vitamin A was discovered in 1913 in butter fat. Diets deficient in vitamin A were shown to cause xerophthalmia, a condition in which the eye fails to produce tears. Water-soluble vitamin B was also found in milk in 1913.1872-02-05T00:00:00+0000Rose was a biochemist and nutritionist. He isolated the amino acid threonine in 1932 and demonstrated in rats that a diet that lacked the amino acid stunted their growth. By 1949 he had established that ten amino acids were vital to human health: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. Based on this work he was appointed to the US Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council which drew up dietary recommendations. 1887-04-04T00:00:00+0000Willis was a haemotologist who discovered a nutritional factor in yeast, now known as folic acid, which prevents and cures macocytic anaemia, a life-threatening condition that can develop in pregnancy. The disease is particularly prevalent in poor women in the tropics who have inadequate diets. Willis made her discovery while working in India. Noticing that wealthy women seemed to suffer less from the symptoms of anaemia than poor women, Willis hypothesised that the disease was linked to nutrition. She found that liver supplements and Marmite, a spread high in vitamin B made from brewer's yeast could combat anaemia in rats. This led her to successfully treating anaemia in pregnant Indian women by using liver supplements and Marmite. Her results were published in 1931. 1888-05-10T00:00:00+0000Lipmann was a biochemist who shared the 1953 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of coenzyme A. He made the discovery in 1947 when examining pigeon liver extracts. Coenzyme A is one of the most important substances involved in cellular metabolism. It helps convert amino acids, fatty acids and haemoglobulins into energy. 1899-06-12T00:00:00+0000Hopkins, an English biochemist. was awarded the Prize for his discovery of growth-stimulating vitamins and Eijkman, a Dutch physician and pathologist, for his discovery of the antinuetritic vitamin. Their work marked the beginning of research into vitamins. 1929-12-10T00:00:00+0000Eijkman was a Dutch physician and physiologist who helped demonstrate that a poor diet contributes to beriberi, a disease of the peripheral nerves. He first noticed the link in 1897 when by mistake his laboratory chickens were fed a diet of polished, rather than unpolished, rice. Ill-health prevented Eijkman from pinpointing which missing dietary component was important. It was subsequently found that a deficiency of vitamin B1, thiamine, contributed to beriberi. Eijkman shared the Nobel Prize in 1929 for his work in this field. 1930-11-05T00:00:00+0000Mendel was an American biochemist who helped discovered vitamins A and B, lysine and tryptophan and their role in nutrition. Vitamin A was discovered in 1913 in butter fat. Diets deficient in vitamin A was shown to cause xerophthalmia, a condition in which the eye fails to produce tears. Water-soluble vitamin B was also found in milk in 1913. 1935-12-09T00:00:00+0000Willis was a British haemotologist who discovered a nutritional factor in yeast, now known as folic acid, which prevents and cures macocytic anaemia, a life-threatening condition that can develop in pregnancy. The disease is particularly prevalent in poor women in the tropics who have inadequate diets. Willis made her discovery while working in India. Noticing that wealthy women seemed to suffer less from the symptoms of anaemia than poor women, Willis hypothesised that the disease was linked to nutrition. She found that liver supplements and Marmite, a spread high in vitamin B made from brewer's yeast could combat anaemia in rats. This led her to successfully treating anaemia in pregnant Indian women by using liver supplements and Marmite. Her results were published in 1931.1964-04-16T00:00:00+0000Rose was an American biochemist and nutrition. He isolated the amino acid threonine in 1932 and demonstrated in rats that a diet that lacked the amino acid stunted their growth. By 1949 he had established that ten amino acids were vital to human health: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. Based on this work he was appointed to the US Food and Nutrition Board of the National Research Council which drew up dietary recommendations. 1985-09-25T00:00:00+0000Lipmann was an American biochemist who shared the 1953 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of coenzyme A. He made the discovery in 1947 when examining pigeon liver extracts. Coenzyme A is one of the most important substances involved in cellular metabolism. It helps convert amino acids, fatty acids and haemoglobulins into energy.1986-07-24T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places
11 Aug 1858Christiaan Eijkman was born in Nijkerk, the NetherlandsEijkmanUtrecht University
5 Feb 1872Lafayette Benedict Mendel was born in Dehli, NY, USMendelYale University
4 Apr 1887William C Rose was born Greenville, South Carolina, USARoseUniversity of Illinois
10 May 1888Lucy Willis was born in Sutton Coldfield, United KingdomWillisRoyal Free Hospital, Haffkine Institute
12 Jun 1899Fritz A Lipmann born in Koenigsberg (now Kaliningrad), Germany (now Russia)LipmannCornell University, Harvard University
10 Dec 1929Frederick Hopkins shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Christiaan Eijkman for the discovery of vitaminsHopkins, EijkmanCambridge University, Javanese Medical School
5 Nov 1930Christiaan Eijkman diedEijkmanUtrecht University
9 Dec 1935Lafayette Benedict Mendel diedMendelYale University
16 Apr 1964Lucy Willis diedWillisRoyal Free Hospital, Haffkine Institute
25 Sep 1985William Cumming Rose diedRoseUniversity of Illinois
24 Jul 1986Fritz A Lipmann diedLipmannCornell University, Harvard University

11 Aug 1858

Christiaan Eijkman was born in Nijkerk, the Netherlands

5 Feb 1872

Lafayette Benedict Mendel was born in Dehli, NY, US

4 Apr 1887

William C Rose was born Greenville, South Carolina, USA

10 May 1888

Lucy Willis was born in Sutton Coldfield, United Kingdom

12 Jun 1899

Fritz A Lipmann born in Koenigsberg (now Kaliningrad), Germany (now Russia)

10 Dec 1929

Frederick Hopkins shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Christiaan Eijkman for the discovery of vitamins

5 Nov 1930

Christiaan Eijkman died

9 Dec 1935

Lafayette Benedict Mendel died

16 Apr 1964

Lucy Willis died

25 Sep 1985

William Cumming Rose died

24 Jul 1986

Fritz A Lipmann died