RNA

RNA: timeline of key events

Ochoa was a biochemist and molecular biologist whose research was devoted to understanding enzymes and their role in intermediary metabolism. He was one of the first scientists to show the pivotal role of high energy phosphates, like adenosine triphosphate, in the storage and release of energy. During this work he discovered the enzyme polynucleotide phosphorylase, which plays an important role in the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA). This enzyme provided the foundation for the subsequent synthesis of artificial RNA and the breaking of the human genetic code. Ochoa was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1959 for his work on the biological synthesis of RNA.1905-09-24T00:00:00+0000Pirie was a virus physiologist and biochemist. He helped determine that the genetic component of viruses was RNA. Before this viruses were thought to be made up completely of proteins. During World War II he explored the possibility of extracting edible proteins from leaves, research that he carried on into the 1970s. His experiments were directed towards solving the food problem posed by the growing world population. He hoped to replace the inefficient method of feeding animals to secure protein for the diet.1907-07-01T00:00:00+0000Stein was a biochemist who shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for contributing to understanding the composition and functioning of ribonuclease, an enzyme that catalyses the break down of RNA into smaller components. It was the first structure and sequence worked out for any enzyme. Stein carried out the work with his colleague Stanford Moore in 1963. The two scientists were aided by their invention of the first means for automated amino acid analysis. In addition to his work on ribonuclease, Stein showed how proteins that are comprised of the same amino acids can have very different characteristics and functions. 1911-06-25T00:00:00+0000Anfinsen was a biochemist who spent his career studying the relationships between structure and function in proteins. He is best known for his studies of ribonuclease, a type of nuclease that catalyses the degradation of RNA into smaller components. In 1972 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work 'on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation.' 1916-03-26T00:00:00+0000Kornberg was a biochemist renowned for his research on enzymes which create DNA. In 1956 he and his team isolated the first enzyme known to be involved in the replication of DNA. It would be called DNA polymerase I. For this work Kornberg shared the 1959 Nobel Prize for Medicine. The Prize was given for the discovery of the 'mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.'1918-03-03T00:00:00+0000Gilbert is a molecular biologist. He was involved in some of the early efforts to pioneer techniques for determining base sequences in nucleic acids, known known as DNA sequencing, for which he shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1980. He was the first scientist to propose the existence of intron and exons. In 1986 Gilbert became a proponent of the theory that the first forms of life evolved out of replicating RNA molecules. The same year he began campaigning to set up the Human Genome Project. He was also a co-founder and the first Chief Executive Officer of Biogen, a biotechnology company originally set up to commercialise genetic engineering.1932-03-21T00:00:00+0000Altman is a molecular biologist who shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for discovering the catalytic properties of RNA. This emerged out of some work Altman carried out between 1978 and 1983 on a bacterial enzyme called RNAs-P. His research helped transform the basic understanding of nuclear acids, which up to this moment had been understood to only carry genetic information. It also opened up the possibility of using genetic engineering to develop new forms of therapy against viral infections. 1939-05-07T00:00:00+0000Yonath is a biochemist who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2009 for helping to map the structure of ribosomes, the molecule that helps translate RNA into protein. She started the research in the 1970s using x-ray crystallography. By 2001 she had worked out the complete high-resolution of structures of both ribosomal subunits and discovered a region important to the process of polypeptide polymerisation. In addition to this work Yonath had elucidated the modes of action of over 20 different antibiotics that target the ribsome, which has provided insights into the mechanisms of drug resistance and antibiotic sensitivity. 1939-06-22T00:00:00+0000Steitz is a biochemist and biophysicist who shared the 2009 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for elucidating the atomic structure and function of ribosomes, tiny particles made up of RNA and proteins involved in protein synthesis. He and colleagues determined this in 2000 using x-ray crystallography. The work opened up a new pathway to the discovery and development of new classes of antibiotics. 1940-08-23T00:00:00+0000Sharp is a geneticist and molecular biologist. He shared the 1993 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of RNA splicing. This was awarded on the back of some research he did in 1977 which showed that RNA can be divided up into introns and exons, after which the exons can be joined together. This process can happen in different ways. It provides the means for the gene to form a number of different proteins. Sharp also co-founded Biogen, set up in 1978, and helped found Alnylam Pharmaceuticals and Magen Biosciences.1944-06-06T00:00:00+0000Kornberg is a biochemist whose research is focused on working out the mechanism and regulation of transcription, which is the first step in the pathway of gene expression. In 2006 he won the Nobel Prize for working out the protein pathway that a cell's genetic information takes when transferred to a new cell. He showed how information is carried from the genes and converted to molecules called messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA). This he worked out by mapping out the process in yeast. Kornberg was the first to work out how transcription works at a molecular level in eukaryotes, a group of organisms, including humans, whose cells have a well-defined nucleus. 1947-04-24T00:00:00+0000Cech is a chemist who shared the 1989 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the discovery of the catalytic properties of RNA. This was based on his investigation of splicing RNA in Tetrahymena thermophila, a unicellular organism during the 1970s. He discovered that unprocessed RNA molecules could splice themselves and showed that RNA molecules are not restricted to being passive carriers of genetic information. 1947-12-08T00:00:00+0000Szotak is a biologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for helping to discover how chromosomes are protected by telomeres, a section of DNA at the end of a chromosome. He is also known for having constructed the world's first yeast artificial chromosome, a breakthrough that has helped scientists to map the location of genes in mammals and develop techniques for mapping genes. Szotak is also responsible for the development of a technique known as in vitro evolution of RNA which makes it possible to discover RNAs with desired functions. 1952-11-09T00:00:00+0000The observation was made by the American scientists Lazarus Astrachan and Elliot Voilin in an experiment to understand ho hereditary information encoded in DNA is used by living cells to synthesise proteins.1957-01-01T00:00:00+0000Fire is a biologist, pathologist and geneticist. In 1998 he and other colleagues working at Carnegie Institute reported in an article in Nature the discovery of tiny snippets of double-stranded RNA dsRNA) that appeared to silence specific genes which destroyed messenger RNA, a molecule involved in the production of proteins. They hypothesised that this was caused by a catalytic process. In 2006 he shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for helping to show the mechanism that controlled the flow of genetic information. 1959-04-27T00:00:00+0000Mello is a biologist who shared the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of RNA interference. This was based on work he carried out with colleagues to identify genes involved in regulating nematode development. He discovered that some nematode embryos injected with RNA to silence certain genes passed on the silencing effect to their offspring. On investigating further they found a double-stranded RNA was involved in the silencing phenomenon and that it is a defence mechanism against viral infection. The findings were published in 1998. 1960-10-19T00:00:00+0000Experiment conducted by Sydney Brenner, Francois Jacob and Matt Meselson1961-03-31T00:00:00+0000H Alexander and K Sprunt, 'Invasion of mammalian cells by ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolated from poliovirus', 10th International Congress of Pediatrics, Lisbon, Portugal, September 9-15, 1962.1962-09-01T00:00:00+0000Stein was an American biochemist who shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for contributing to understanding the composition and functioning of ribonuclease, an enzyme that catalyses the break down of RNA into smaller components. It was the first structure and sequence worked out for any enzyme. Stein carried out the work with his colleague Stanford Moore in 1963. The two scientists were aided by their invention of the first means for automated amino acid analysis. In addition to his work on ribonuclease, Stein showed how proteins that are comprised of the same amino acids can have very different characteristics and functions.1980-02-02T00:00:00+0000Two independent teams demonstrate the phenomenon: Jonathan Izzant and Harold Weintraub; John Rubenstein and Jean-Francoise Nicolas.1984-01-01T00:00:00+0000Injections of a gene for pigment coloration in peturnias unexpectedly results in white flowers instead of purple flowers. US plant geneticists carrying out the experiment, Richard Jorgensen and Carolyn Napoli, call the phenomenenon 'cosuppression'.1986-01-01T00:00:00+0000JA Doudna, BP Cormack, JW Szostak, 'RNA Structure, Not Sequence, Determines the 5? Splice-Site Specificity of a Group I Intron', PNAS, 86/19 (1989), 7402-06.1989-10-01T00:00:00+0000Anfinsen was an American biochemist who spent his career studying the relationships between structure and function in proteins. He is best known for his studies of ribonuclease, a type of nuclease that catalyses the degradation of RNA into smaller components. In 1972 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work 'on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation.'1995-05-14T00:00:00+0000It was the second single RNA structure to be unravelled. Doudna, J. A. and T. R. Cech, 'Self-assembly of a Group I Intron Active Site from its Component Tertiary Structural Domains', RNA, 1/1 (1995), 36-45.1996-03-01T00:00:00+0000Pirie was a virus physiologist and biochemist. He helped determine that the genetic component of viruses was RNA. Before this viruses were thought to be made up completely of proteins. During World War II he explored the possibility of extracting edible proteins from leaves, research that he carried on into the 1970s. His experiments were directed towards solving the food problem posed by the growing world population. He hoped to replace the inefficient method of feeding animals to secure protein for the diet.1997-03-29T00:00:00+0000Introduction of RNA into cells is shown to silence genes in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Term 'RNA interference' coined. A Fire, S Xu, M K Montgomery, S A Kostas, S E Driver, C C Mello, 'Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans', Nature 391 (1998), 806–11.1998-02-01T00:00:00+0000Part of research to understand viral resistance in plants. A J Hamilton, D C Baulcombe, 'A species of small antisense RNA in posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants', Sciene, 29, 286/5441 (1999), 950-2.1999-01-01T00:00:00+0000Experiments conducted by Thomas Tuschl and colleagues show small interfering RNA (SiRNA) can be successfully used to induce short-term silencing of protein coding genes in mammalian cells. S M Elbashir, et al., 'Duplexes of 21-nucleotide RNAs mediate RNA interference in cultured mammalian cells', Nature, 411 (2010) 494-8.2001-05-24T00:00:00+0000The work was led by Ada Yonath using x-ray crystallography. This was a major achievement given the hundreds of thousands of atoms that ribosomes contain. Ribosomes help build proteins in the body. The work has led to many applications, including for the production of antibiotics. F Schlunzen, R Zarivach, J Harms, A Bashan, A Ticilj, R Albrecht, A Yonath, F Franceschi, 'Structural basis for the interaction of antibiotics with the peptidyl transferase centre in eubacteria', Nature, 413 (2001), 814-21. 2001-10-25T00:00:00+0000Drug developed by OPKO Opthalmologics.2004-01-01T00:00:00+0000Awarded to Andrew Fire and Craig C Mello for their work on RNAi in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans published in 1998.2006-01-01T00:00:00+0000Merck gains access to potentially gate-keeping RNAi patents owned by Sima. Signals high hopes for RNAi technology.2006-10-01T00:00:00+0000Roche pays US$331 million for limited access to RNAi therapeutic platform.2007-01-01T00:00:00+0000Kornberg was an American biochemist renowned for his research on enzymes which create DNA. In 1956 he and his team isolated the first enzyme known to be involved in the replication of DNA. It would be called DNA polymerase I. For this work Kornberg shared the 1959 Nobel Prize for Medicine. The Prize was given for the discovery of the 'mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.'2007-10-26T00:00:00+0000Drug poor at preventing vision loss.2009-01-01T00:00:00+0000Sends shockwaves through RNAi drug development community.2010-11-01T00:00:00+0000Merck gained facility from Sima Therapeutics. Decision driven by company's need to cut costs.2011-07-29T00:00:00+0000Study conducted with 41 patients with advanced cancer. Led by Josep Tabernero, Institute of Oncology Department, Vall d'Hebron University together with Alnylam and other cancer research centres.2013-02-11T00:00:00+0000The drug, developed by Alynylam, aimed at lowering cholesterol. It was tested in 32 patients. 2013-10-03T00:00:00+0000Sanofi pays US$700 million for 12 percent stake in Alynlam. Signals renewed interest in RNAi therapeutics.2014-01-01T00:00:00+0000Roche agreed to pay US$148 million in upfront and milestone payments. Deal signals renewed optimism in RNAi therapeutics.2014-01-10T00:00:00+0000Novartis shut down its collaborative programme with Alynlam based on lingering problems associated with delivering RNAi therapeutics. It marked a major set back for the RNAi therapeutics field as a whole. 2014-04-14T00:00:00+0000The trials undertaken from 2013 used a drug that interferes with RNA. The drug was developed by Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals. The aim of the drug is to reduce the surface antigens (HBsAg) created by chronic hepatitis B infections. The trials showed the experimental drug was safe and effective enough to be tested in people. The drug is designed to deliver a molecule to the liver where it binds to a receptor, and then another molecule, derived from bee venom, helps break through the membranes in the liver cells to deliver the medicine directly into the cells. The drug interferes with the the expression of the hepatitis B messager RNA that produces HBsAg. 2015-01-01T00:00:00+0000Launched by Isis Pharmaceuticals (now Ionis) in partnership with Roche, the trial aimed to study the first therapy designed to silence the Huntingdon's disease gene and reduce the production of a protein responsible for the disease. 2015-07-21T00:00:00+00002016-11-09T00:00:00+0000The company's shares fell from a high of $6.18 on November 8, 2016, to an $1.20 on December 21, 2016. 2016-11-09T00:00:00+0000227 patient study showed drug from Alnylam Pharmaceuticals had benefits for rare hereditary disorder - ATTR amyloidosis with polyneuropathy, a rare disorder.2017-09-20T00:00:00+0000The method provided a means to fix genetic mutations without tampering with the genome. It was published in D.B.T. Cox, J.S. Gootenberg, O.O. Abudayyeh, B.Franklin, M.J. Kellner, et al, 'RNA editing with CRISPR-Cas13', Science (25 Oct 2017), eaaq0180, DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq01802017-10-25T00:00:00+0000The aim of the drug is to mute hepatitis B genes to give the immune system a chance to fight the hepatitis B infection.2018-03-27T00:00:00+0000Developed by Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals, the drug, ARC-520, is administered with the antiviral entecavir. The treatment cleared the HBsAg from one patient and substantially reduced it in the remaining patients. The results were presented to the European Association for the Study of the Liver. 2018-05-02T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places
24 Sep 1905Severo Ochoa was born in Luarca, SpainOchoaNew York University
1 Jul 1907Norman Wingate (Bill) Pirie was born in Eastbourne, UKPirie Rothamsted Experimental Station
25 Jun 1911William H Stein was born in New York NY, USASteinRockefeller University
26 Mar 1916Christian B Anfinsen was born in Monessen, Pennsylvania, USA AnfinsenNational Institutes of Health
3 Mar 1918Arthur Kornberg was born in Brooklyn NY, USAKornbergStanford University
21 Mar 1932Walter Gilbert was born in Boston MA, USAGilbertHarvard University, Biogen
7 May 1939Sidney Altman was born in Montreal, CanadaAltmannLaboratory of Molecular Biology
22 Jun 1939Ada E Yonath was born in Jerusalem, Palestine (now Israel)YonathWeizmann Institute
23 Aug 1940Thomas A Steitz was born in Milwaukee, WI, USASteitzYale University
6 Jun 1944Phillip A Sharp was born in Falmouth, Kentucky, USASharpMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Biogen, Alynylam Pharmaceuticals, Magen Biosciences
24 Apr 1947Roger D Kornberg was born in St. Louis, MO, USAKornbergStanford University
8 Dec 1947Thomas R Cech was born in Chicago IL, USACechUniversity of Colorado
9 Nov 1952Jack Szostak was born in London, United KingdomSzotakHarvard University
1957First observation of messenger RNAAstrachan, VolkinOak Ridge National Laboratory
27 Apr 1959Andrew Z Fire was born in Stanford CA, USAFire Carnegie Institute, Johns Hopkins, Stanford University
19 Oct 1960Craig C Mello was born in New Haven, CT, USAMelloUniversity of Massachusetts
31 Mar 1961Experiments reveal a type of RNA (messenger RNA) transports genetic information from the nucleus to the protein-making machinery in a cellBrenner, Crick, Jacob 
September 1962Hattie Alexander and Katherine Sprunt demonstrated that the RNA of the poliovirus can independently infect human cells Alexander, SpruntColumbia University
2 Feb 1980William H Stein diedSteinRockefeller University
1984Antisense RNA shown to inhibit gene activityIzzant, Weintraub, Rubenstein, NicolasFred Hutchinson Cencer Research Center, University of California San Francisco
1986Discovery of RNA interference (RNAi)Jorgensen, NapoliAdvanced Genetic Sciences
October 1989RNA demonstrated to help catalyse the process for synthesising proteinDoudna, Cormack, SzostakHarvard University
14 May 1995Christian B Anfinsen died AnfinsenNational Institutes of Health
March 1996Jennifer Doudna and Thomas Cech unravelled structure of P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena thermophila group I intron ribozyme, a particular type of RNADoudna, CechUniversity of Colorado
29 Mar 1997Death of Norman Wingate (Bill) PiriePirieRothamsted Experimental Station
February 1998Double stranded RNA demonstrated to be potent mechanism for silencing genesFire, Mello, Xu, Montgomery, Kostas, Driver, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Johns Hopkins University, University of Massachusetts Cancer Center
1999Discovery of small interfering RNA (siRNA), very small stretches of double-stranded RNA, interfere with genesBaulcombe, Hamilton John Innes Centre
May 2001Small interfering RNA (siRNA) shown to be useful tool for switching off certain genesElbashir, Harborth, Lendecker, Yalcin, Weber, TuschlMax-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry
25 Oct 2001Structure and function of ribosomes deciphered opening up new era for improving antibiotic drugs and designing new onesYonath, Schlunzen, Zarivach, Harms, Basham, Ticilj, Albrecht, FrancheschiWeizmann Institute
2004Phase I trial launched with RNAi treatment (Cand5) for wet age-related macular degeneration 
2006Nobel Prize awarded for RNA inteference workFire, MelloCarnegie Institution of Washington, University of Massachusetts
October 2006Merck acquires Sima Therapeutics for US$1.1 billion 
2007Roche signs alliance with Alynlam for RNAi therapeutics 
26 Oct 2007Arthur Kornberg diedKornbergStanford University
2009Phase III clinical trials for RNAi treatment (Cand5) for wet age-related macular degeneration halted 
November 2010Disappointment follows Roche's decision to pull out of RNAi therapeutics 
July 2011Merck closes down RNAi research facility 
February 2013RNAi treatment shown to be effective cancer treatment in phase I clinical trialsTaberneroVall d'Hebron University
3 Oct 2013RNAi drug was indicated to be safe and well-tolerated in a phase I trial 
January 2014Sanofi invests in Alynlam 
January 2014Roche entered RNAi therapeutics alliance with Santaris 
14 Apr 2014Novartis suddenly pulls plug on RNAi researchNovartis
2015Chimpanzee trials indicated that gene silencing drug could treat hepatitis B Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals
21 Jul 2015Phase 1 clinical trial launched with RNAi treatment for Huntingdon's diseaseIsis Pharmaceuticals, Roche
9 Nov 2016FDA halted phase II trials with RNA interference drug, ARC-520, due to multiple deaths of non-human primates treated with high dosesArrowhead Pharmaceuticals
9 Nov 2016 - 21 Dec 2016Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals shares fell following hold on clinical trials with RNAi drug to treat hepatitis BArrowhead Pharmaceuticals
20 Sep 2017Positive results reported from clinical trial with RNAi drugAlynlam
25 Oct 2017New CRISPR technique published for editing RNA Zhang, Cox, Gootenberg, Abudayyeh, B Franklin, Kellner, Essletzbichler, Verdine, Joung, Lander, Belanto, Voytas, RegevMassachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Minnesota
27 Mar 2018Dosing trial launched with humans to test use of RNA interference drug to treat hepatitis BArrowhead Pharmaceuticals
2 May 2018Positive results for RNAi drug for treating chronic hepatitis b reported from 8-person clinical trialArrowhead Pharmaceuticals

24 Sep 1905

Severo Ochoa was born in Luarca, Spain

1 Jul 1907

Norman Wingate (Bill) Pirie was born in Eastbourne, UK

25 Jun 1911

William H Stein was born in New York NY, USA

26 Mar 1916

Christian B Anfinsen was born in Monessen, Pennsylvania, USA

3 Mar 1918

Arthur Kornberg was born in Brooklyn NY, USA

21 Mar 1932

Walter Gilbert was born in Boston MA, USA

7 May 1939

Sidney Altman was born in Montreal, Canada

22 Jun 1939

Ada E Yonath was born in Jerusalem, Palestine (now Israel)

23 Aug 1940

Thomas A Steitz was born in Milwaukee, WI, USA

6 Jun 1944

Phillip A Sharp was born in Falmouth, Kentucky, USA

24 Apr 1947

Roger D Kornberg was born in St. Louis, MO, USA

8 Dec 1947

Thomas R Cech was born in Chicago IL, USA

9 Nov 1952

Jack Szostak was born in London, United Kingdom

1957

First observation of messenger RNA

27 Apr 1959

Andrew Z Fire was born in Stanford CA, USA

19 Oct 1960

Craig C Mello was born in New Haven, CT, USA

31 Mar 1961

Experiments reveal a type of RNA (messenger RNA) transports genetic information from the nucleus to the protein-making machinery in a cell

Sep 1962

Hattie Alexander and Katherine Sprunt demonstrated that the RNA of the poliovirus can independently infect human cells

2 Feb 1980

William H Stein died

1984

Antisense RNA shown to inhibit gene activity

1986

Discovery of RNA interference (RNAi)

Oct 1989

RNA demonstrated to help catalyse the process for synthesising protein

14 May 1995

Christian B Anfinsen died

Mar 1996

Jennifer Doudna and Thomas Cech unravelled structure of P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena thermophila group I intron ribozyme, a particular type of RNA

29 Mar 1997

Death of Norman Wingate (Bill) Pirie

Feb 1998

Double stranded RNA demonstrated to be potent mechanism for silencing genes

1999

Discovery of small interfering RNA (siRNA), very small stretches of double-stranded RNA, interfere with genes

May 2001

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) shown to be useful tool for switching off certain genes

25 Oct 2001

Structure and function of ribosomes deciphered opening up new era for improving antibiotic drugs and designing new ones

2004

Phase I trial launched with RNAi treatment (Cand5) for wet age-related macular degeneration

2006

Nobel Prize awarded for RNA inteference work

Oct 2006

Merck acquires Sima Therapeutics for US$1.1 billion

2007

Roche signs alliance with Alynlam for RNAi therapeutics

26 Oct 2007

Arthur Kornberg died

2009

Phase III clinical trials for RNAi treatment (Cand5) for wet age-related macular degeneration halted

Nov 2010

Disappointment follows Roche's decision to pull out of RNAi therapeutics

Jul 2011

Merck closes down RNAi research facility

Feb 2013

RNAi treatment shown to be effective cancer treatment in phase I clinical trials

3 Oct 2013

RNAi drug was indicated to be safe and well-tolerated in a phase I trial

Jan 2014

Sanofi invests in Alynlam

Jan 2014

Roche entered RNAi therapeutics alliance with Santaris

14 Apr 2014

Novartis suddenly pulls plug on RNAi research

2015

Chimpanzee trials indicated that gene silencing drug could treat hepatitis B

21 Jul 2015

Phase 1 clinical trial launched with RNAi treatment for Huntingdon's disease

9 Nov 2016

FDA halted phase II trials with RNA interference drug, ARC-520, due to multiple deaths of non-human primates treated with high doses

9 Nov 2016 - 21 Dec 2016

Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals shares fell following hold on clinical trials with RNAi drug to treat hepatitis B

20 Sep 2017

Positive results reported from clinical trial with RNAi drug

25 Oct 2017

New CRISPR technique published for editing RNA

27 Mar 2018

Dosing trial launched with humans to test use of RNA interference drug to treat hepatitis B

2 May 2018

Positive results for RNAi drug for treating chronic hepatitis b reported from 8-person clinical trial