Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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JLT Appleton, 'The problems of oral microbiology as problems in ecology', in GM, Anderson, ed, Proceedings of the Dental Centenary Celebration. Chicago, Illinois: American Dental Association (1940), 282–93.2018-12-16T16:00:28+0000R Dubos, R Schaedler, D Savage, ‘The Indigenous Flora of the Gastrointestinal Tract,’ Disease of the Colon and Rectum, 10 (1966), 23-33. Delivered June 21, 1966, p. 23; R Dubos, RW Schaedler, ‘Some biological effects of the digestive flora’, Am J Med Sci, 244 (1962), 265–71. 2018-12-16T16:00:28+0000Kuhn was an Austrian-Hungarian biochemist who won the 1938 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on carostenoids, a group of nonnitrogenous yellow, orange and red pigments found in nature. One of these he found to be necessary for the fertilisation of certain algae. He was also awarded the Prize based on his work to determine the constitution of vitamin B2 which he also isolated. He later also helped isolate vitamin B6. Initially Kuhn turned down the Nobel Prize because he was forbidden to accept it by the Nazis with whom he collaborated in the denouncement of three of his Jewish colleagues. He finally accepted the Prize after World War II. Kuhn is also credited with the discovery of Soman, a deadly nerve agent, in 1944.2018-12-16T16:00:28+0000Harvey was the first physician to describe in detail the pump action of the heart and the circulation of blood. He published this work in 1628. His findings sparked controversy at the time because they challenged Galen's teachings that blood passed between ventricles through invisible pores and the traditional view that blood circulation involved two separate systems. 1578-04-01T00:00:00+00001600-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hooke was a natural philosopher. In 1665 he coined the word 'cell' to describe a basic unit of life in his book, Microphia, describing his observations with microscopes and telescopes and biological experiments. He noted that plant cells resembled the cells of a honeycomb. 1635-07-28T00:00:00+0000Harvey was an English physician. He was the first physician to describe in detail the pump action of the heart and the circulation of blood. He published this work in 1628. His findings sparked controversy at the time because they challenged Galen's teachings that blood passed between ventricles through invisible pores and the traditional view that blood circulation involved two separate systems. 1657-06-03T00:00:00+0000The English physicist Robert Hooke provided the first description of cells to the Royal Society.1663-01-01T00:00:00+0000van Leeuwenhoek developed the microscope to study the quality of thread in fabrics sold in his draper's shop.1674-01-01T00:00:00+00001675-01-01T00:00:00+0000A van Leeuwenhoek, ‘An abstract of a Letter from Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’ Sep. 12, 1683; ‘About Animals in the scrurf of the Teeth’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 14 (1684), 568–74.1683-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hooke was a natural philosopher. In 1665 he coined the word 'cell' to describe a basic unit of life in his book, Microphia, describing his observations with microscopes and telescopes and biological experiments. He noted that plant cells resembled the cells of a honeycomb. 1703-03-03T00:00:00+0000Known as the father of modern physiology, von Haller was a physician who discovered the autonomous nature of the heart and the mechanism of respiration. He also discovered that bile helps digest fats and made many contributions to understanding the distinction between nerve impulses and muscle contractions. During his time he put forward different theories about the nature of embryological development, one of which proposed that the new individual exists within the maternal egg prior to conception. He also put forward an accurate model of fetal growth during gestation, showing that the growth was faster at the beginning than later on. 1708-10-16T00:00:00+0000Lamarck was a French biologist who proposed that physical traits were inherited through generations by two forces. The first force was alchemical and second was environmental. He first outlined his theory of evolution in a lecture in 1802. While discredited for many years, Lamark's theory that organisms can acquire physical traits from their environment and pass these on to their offspring has resurfaced with the rise of epigenetics, a science that seeks to understand how chemical modifications to genes and proteins made in one generation are passed on to the next one.1744-10-01T00:00:00+0000Jenner was an English physician who helped pioneer the smallpox vaccine based on his hypothesis that the pus in blisters milkmaids received from cowpox protected them from smallpox. To test out his theory in 1796 he inoculated the 8 year old son of his gardener with pus taken from the cowpox blisters of a local milkmaid. While the boy suffered a fever he showed no sign of infection with smallpox. Jenner then injected the child with smallpox material, a common method of immunisation at the time, known as variolation. Again he showed no sign of infection. Following this, Jenner tested the same technique in 23 further people. Based on his success, in 1840 the British government outlawed variolation and provided Jenner's method for free to prevent smallpox. Jenner's work laid the foundation for immunisation as a method for preventing disease and for contemporary discoveries in immunology. 1749-05-17T00:00:00+0000Capsar's parents were Richard Wistar and Sarah Wyatt. He was the grandson of Caspar Wistar, a German immigrant, Quaker and glassmaker.1761-09-13T00:00:00+0000Known as the father of modern physiology, von Haller was a Swiss physician who discovered the autonomous nature of the heart and the mechanism of respiration. He also discovered that bile helps digest fats and made many contributions to understanding the distinction between nerve impulses and muscle contractions. During his time he put forward different theories about the nature of embryological development, one of which proposed that the new individual exists within the maternal egg prior to conception. He also put forward an accurate model of fetal growth during gestation, showing that the growth was faster at the beginning than later on. 1777-12-12T00:00:00+0000Caspar had developed an interest in medicine after attending to the wounded in the aftermath of the battle of Germantown. 1783-01-01T00:00:00+0000While in Scotland, Caspar was elected president of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh for two years due to his 'investigation of natural history'. Caspar dedicated his doctoral thesis to Benjamin Franklin and to William Cullen, a famous Scottish physician. 1786-01-01T00:00:00+0000He also succeeded Benjamin Rush as professor of chemistry at the College of Philadelphia.1787-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
16 Dec 2018Researchers highlighted dental problems could be linked to changes to ecology of the microbial community in the mouthAppleton Microbiome
16 Dec 2018US scientists argued eradicating one type of bacterium living peacefully in humans opens vacuum for dangerous invaders Dubos, Schaedler, Savage Microbiome
16 Dec 2018Richard Kuhn diedKuhnUniversity of HeidelbergBiochemistry
1 Apr 1578William Harvey was born in Folkestone, United KingdomHarveyFolkestone, United KingdomCardiovascular
1600 - 1900Outbreaks of jaundice common in urban populations and armies during wars   
28 Jul 1635Robert Hooke was born Freshwater, Isle of WightHooke Cell
3 Jun 1657William Harvey diedHarvey Cardiovascular
1663First time the cell described as a basic unit of lifeHookeRoyal SocietyCell
1674Invention of the microscope by Antonie van LeeuwenhoekLeeuwenhoek  
1675First microscopic observations of protozoa and bacteria by van LeeuwenhoekLeeuwenhoek 
1683 - 1684Antonie van Leewenhoek, a Dutch merchant, observed striking differences between microbes in oral and fecal samples taken from himself and collected from sick and healthy individuals van Leeuwenhoek Microbiome
3 Mar 1703Robert Hooke diedHooke Cell
16 Oct 1708Albrecht von Haller was born in Bern, Switzerlandvon HallerUniversity of GottingenAnatomy, Embryology, Reproduction, Physiology
1 Oct 1744Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was born in Bazentin, Picardy, FranceLamarckFrench Academy of SciencesGenetics
17 May 1749Edward Jenner was born in Berkeley, United KingdomJennerBerkeley, United KingdomImmunology, Vaccine
13 Sep 1761Caspar Wistar was born in Philadelphia Wistar Institute 
12 Dec 1777Albrecht von Haller diedvon HallerUniversity of GottingenAnatomy, Embryology, Reproduction, Physiology
1783Caspar Wistar received his Batchelor of Medicine from the University of Pennsylvania Wistar Institute 
1786Caspar Wistar received his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Edinburgh Wistar Institute 
1787Caspar Wistar appointed physician to the Philadelphia Dispensary, elected to the College of Physicians of Philadelphia and to the American Philosophical Society Wistar Institute 

16 Dec 2018

Researchers highlighted dental problems could be linked to changes to ecology of the microbial community in the mouth

16 Dec 2018

US scientists argued eradicating one type of bacterium living peacefully in humans opens vacuum for dangerous invaders

16 Dec 2018

Richard Kuhn died

1 Apr 1578

William Harvey was born in Folkestone, United Kingdom

1600 - 1900

Outbreaks of jaundice common in urban populations and armies during wars

28 Jul 1635

Robert Hooke was born Freshwater, Isle of Wight

3 Jun 1657

William Harvey died

1663

First time the cell described as a basic unit of life

1674

Invention of the microscope by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

1675

First microscopic observations of protozoa and bacteria by van Leeuwenhoek

1683 - 1684

Antonie van Leewenhoek, a Dutch merchant, observed striking differences between microbes in oral and fecal samples taken from himself and collected from sick and healthy individuals

3 Mar 1703

Robert Hooke died

16 Oct 1708

Albrecht von Haller was born in Bern, Switzerland

1 Oct 1744

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was born in Bazentin, Picardy, France

17 May 1749

Edward Jenner was born in Berkeley, United Kingdom

13 Sep 1761

Caspar Wistar was born in Philadelphia

12 Dec 1777

Albrecht von Haller died

1783

Caspar Wistar received his Batchelor of Medicine from the University of Pennsylvania

1786

Caspar Wistar received his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Edinburgh

1787

Caspar Wistar appointed physician to the Philadelphia Dispensary, elected to the College of Physicians of Philadelphia and to the American Philosophical Society