Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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The work was done by Ross G Harrison, an American biologist and anatomist. It was the first time animal tissue was successfully grown outside the body. 2019-03-18T20:08:52+0000Francis Bacon was a philosopher who is known as the father of the scientific method. He argued that scientific knowledge should be built upon careful observation of events in nature and the process of induction. His approach to scientific enquiry was published in his book Novum Organum in 1620. Bacon also served as the Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England under Queen Elizabeth 1. 1561-01-22T00:00:00+0000Harvey was the first physician to describe in detail the pump action of the heart and the circulation of blood. He published this work in 1628. His findings sparked controversy at the time because they challenged Galen's teachings that blood passed between ventricles through invisible pores and the traditional view that blood circulation involved two separate systems. 1578-04-01T00:00:00+00001600-01-01T00:00:00+0000Francis Bacon was an English philosopher who is known as the father of the scientific method. He argued that scientific knowledge should be built upon careful observation of events in nature and the process of induction. His approach to scientific enquiry was published in his book Novum Organum in 1620. Bacon also served as the Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England under Queen Elizabeth 1.1626-04-09T00:00:00+0000Hooke was a natural philosopher. In 1665 he coined the word 'cell' to describe a basic unit of life in his book, Microphia, describing his observations with microscopes and telescopes and biological experiments. This emerged out of his studies of a thin cutting of cork which he noted to have empty spaces contained by walls, and plants in which he said the cells resembled that of a honeycomb. He calculated that the number of cells in a cubic inch was 1,259,712,000. While Hooke did not grasp the full meaning of his discovery, his work laid the foundation for the cell theory. 1635-07-28T00:00:00+0000Harvey was an English physician. He was the first physician to describe in detail the pump action of the heart and the circulation of blood. He published this work in 1628. His findings sparked controversy at the time because they challenged Galen's teachings that blood passed between ventricles through invisible pores and the traditional view that blood circulation involved two separate systems. 1657-06-03T00:00:00+0000The English physicist Robert Hooke provided the first description of cells to the Royal Society.1663-01-01T00:00:00+0000van Leeuwenhoek developed the microscope to study the quality of thread in fabrics sold in his draper's shop.1674-01-01T00:00:00+0000This was made by by Antoine van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch textile merchant, while examining water closely. His letter announcing the discovery was greeted with scepticism by the Royal Society. 1675-01-01T00:00:00+0000A van Leeuwenhoek, ‘An abstract of a Letter from Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’ Sep. 12, 1683; ‘About Animals in the scrurf of the Teeth’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 14 (1684), 568–74.1683-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hooke was an English natural philosopher. In 1665 he coined the word 'cell' to describe a basic unit of life in his book, Microphia, describing his observations with microscopes and telescopes and biological experiments. This emerged out of his studies of a thin cutting of cork which he noted to have empty spaces contained by walls, and plants in which he said the cells resembled that of a honeycomb. He calculated that the number of cells in a cubic inch was 1,259,712,000. While Hooke did not grasp the full meaning of his discovery, his work laid the foundation for the cell theory.1703-03-03T00:00:00+0000Known as the father of modern physiology, von Haller was a physician who discovered the autonomous nature of the heart and the mechanism of respiration. He also discovered that bile helps digest fats and made many contributions to understanding the distinction between nerve impulses and muscle contractions. During his time he put forward different theories about the nature of embryological development, one of which proposed that the new individual exists within the maternal egg prior to conception. He also put forward an accurate model of fetal growth during gestation, showing that the growth was faster at the beginning than later on. 1708-10-16T00:00:00+0000Lamarck was a French biologist who proposed that physical traits were inherited through generations by two forces. The first force was alchemical and second was environmental. He first outlined his theory of evolution in a lecture in 1802. While discredited for many years, Lamark's theory that organisms can acquire physical traits from their environment and pass these on to their offspring has resurfaced with the rise of epigenetics, a science that seeks to understand how chemical modifications to genes and proteins made in one generation are passed on to the next one.1744-10-01T00:00:00+0000Jenner was an English physician who helped pioneer the smallpox vaccine based on his hypothesis that the pus in blisters milkmaids received from cowpox protected them from smallpox. To test out his theory in 1796 he inoculated the 8 year old son of his gardener with pus taken from the cowpox blisters of a local milkmaid. While the boy suffered a fever he showed no sign of infection with smallpox. Jenner then injected the child with smallpox material, a common method of immunisation at the time, known as variolation. Again he showed no sign of infection. Following this, Jenner tested the same technique in 23 further people. Based on his success, in 1840 the British government outlawed variolation and provided Jenner's method for free to prevent smallpox. Jenner's work laid the foundation for immunisation as a method for preventing disease and for contemporary discoveries in immunology. 1749-05-17T00:00:00+0000Capsar's parents were Richard Wistar and Sarah Wyatt. He was the grandson of Caspar Wistar, a German immigrant, Quaker and glassmaker.1761-09-13T00:00:00+0000Known as the father of modern physiology, von Haller was a Swiss physician who discovered the autonomous nature of the heart and the mechanism of respiration. He also discovered that bile helps digest fats and made many contributions to understanding the distinction between nerve impulses and muscle contractions. During his time he put forward different theories about the nature of embryological development, one of which proposed that the new individual exists within the maternal egg prior to conception. He also put forward an accurate model of fetal growth during gestation, showing that the growth was faster at the beginning than later on. 1777-12-12T00:00:00+0000Caspar had developed an interest in medicine after attending to the wounded in the aftermath of the battle of Germantown. 1783-01-01T00:00:00+0000While in Scotland, Caspar was elected president of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh for two years due to his 'investigation of natural history'. Caspar dedicated his doctoral thesis to Benjamin Franklin and to William Cullen, a famous Scottish physician. 1786-01-01T00:00:00+0000He also succeeded Benjamin Rush as professor of chemistry at the College of Philadelphia.1787-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
18 Mar 2019Embryonic frog nerve cells cultivated and grown in vitro for a monthRoss HarrisonYale UniversityCell culture
22 Jan 1561Francis Bacon was born in LondonBacon  
1 Apr 1578William Harvey was born in Folkestone, United KingdomHarveyFolkestone, United KingdomCardiovascular
1600 - 1900Outbreaks of jaundice common in urban populations and armies during wars   
9 Apr 1626Francis Bacon diedBacon  
28 Jul 1635Robert Hooke was born Freshwater, Isle of WightHooke Cell
3 Jun 1657William Harvey diedHarvey Cardiovascular
1663First time the cell described as a basic unit of lifeHookeRoyal SocietyCell
1674Invention of the microscope by Antonie van LeeuwenhoekLeeuwenhoek  
1675First microscopic observations of protozoa and bacteria Leeuwenhoek Bacteriology, Microbiology
1683 - 1684Antonie van Leewenhoek, a Dutch merchant, observed striking differences between microbes in oral and fecal samples taken from himself and collected from sick and healthy individuals van Leeuwenhoek Microbiome
3 Mar 1703Robert Hooke diedHooke Cell
16 Oct 1708Albrecht von Haller was born in Bern, Switzerlandvon HallerUniversity of GottingenAnatomy, Embryology, Reproduction, Physiology
1 Oct 1744Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was born in Bazentin, Picardy, FranceLamarckFrench Academy of SciencesGenetics
17 May 1749Edward Jenner was born in Berkeley, United KingdomJennerBerkeley, United KingdomImmunology, Vaccine
13 Sep 1761Caspar Wistar was born in Philadelphia Wistar Institute 
12 Dec 1777Albrecht von Haller diedvon HallerUniversity of GottingenAnatomy, Embryology, Reproduction, Physiology
1783Caspar Wistar received his Batchelor of Medicine from the University of Pennsylvania Wistar Institute 
1786Caspar Wistar received his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Edinburgh Wistar Institute 
1787Caspar Wistar appointed physician to the Philadelphia Dispensary, elected to the College of Physicians of Philadelphia and to the American Philosophical Society Wistar Institute 

18 Mar 2019

Embryonic frog nerve cells cultivated and grown in vitro for a month

22 Jan 1561

Francis Bacon was born in London

1 Apr 1578

William Harvey was born in Folkestone, United Kingdom

1600 - 1900

Outbreaks of jaundice common in urban populations and armies during wars

9 Apr 1626

Francis Bacon died

28 Jul 1635

Robert Hooke was born Freshwater, Isle of Wight

3 Jun 1657

William Harvey died

1663

First time the cell described as a basic unit of life

1674

Invention of the microscope by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

1675

First microscopic observations of protozoa and bacteria

1683 - 1684

Antonie van Leewenhoek, a Dutch merchant, observed striking differences between microbes in oral and fecal samples taken from himself and collected from sick and healthy individuals

3 Mar 1703

Robert Hooke died

16 Oct 1708

Albrecht von Haller was born in Bern, Switzerland

1 Oct 1744

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was born in Bazentin, Picardy, France

17 May 1749

Edward Jenner was born in Berkeley, United Kingdom

13 Sep 1761

Caspar Wistar was born in Philadelphia

12 Dec 1777

Albrecht von Haller died

1783

Caspar Wistar received his Batchelor of Medicine from the University of Pennsylvania

1786

Caspar Wistar received his Doctor of Medicine degree from the University of Edinburgh

1787

Caspar Wistar appointed physician to the Philadelphia Dispensary, elected to the College of Physicians of Philadelphia and to the American Philosophical Society