Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Campath-1H is approved for the European market as a third-line treatment of B-CLL. 2001-07-01T00:00:00+0000The creation of new embryonic stem cell lines is banned.2001-08-09T00:00:00+0000Barnard was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world's first successful human to human heart transplant, in 1967. He carried this out at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town on Louis Washansky, a 53 year old grocer. Washanasky received the heart of Denise Darvall, a young woman who was declared brain dead after being run over by car. He died from pneumonia 18 days after the heart transplant. 2001-09-02T00:00:00+0000Advanced Cell Technology, a private lab, created a six-cell embryo by removing DNA from a human egg and injecting it with the DNA of a skin cell. The aim was to produce genetically matched replacement cells for patients with a wide range of diseases.2001-10-01T00:00:00+0000The work was led by Ada Yonath using x-ray crystallography. This was a major achievement given the hundreds of thousands of atoms that ribosomes contain. Ribosomes help build proteins in the body. The work has led to many applications, including for the production of antibiotics. F Schlunzen, R Zarivach, J Harms, A Bashan, A Ticilj, R Albrecht, A Yonath, F Franceschi, 'Structural basis for the interaction of antibiotics with the peptidyl transferase centre in eubacteria', Nature, 413 (2001), 814-21. 2001-10-25T00:00:00+00002002-01-01T00:00:00+0000The ISCF is set up to foster international collaboration and promote global good practices and accelerating progress in biomedical science.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000The multipotent cells are a specialised cell type produced from pluripotent stem cells. The purified multipotent marrow stem cells are shown capable of being used as single injected cells for extended marrow regeneration in vivo.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000This comes about after a meeting between Jeff Bulchalter, chief executive officer of Ilex Oncology and Compston.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Known as CAMMS223, this randomised control trial, which compares Campath-1H with interferon beta-1a, indicates Campath-1H is an effective treatment for MS.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Trials halted after French and UK children discovered to have developed leukaemia-like condition three years after receiving gene therapy for SCID. This found to be linked to the adenoviral vector used in their treatment.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000L. Mooney, C. A. Sabatos, J.L. Gaglia, A. Ryu, H. Waldner, T. Chernova, S. Manning, E. A. Greenfield, A. J. Coyle, R.A. Sobel, G. J. Freeman, V. K. Kuchroo, Nature, 2002, 415/6871, 536-41.2002-01-01T00:00:00+00002002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Perutz fled Austria in 1936 with his Jewish family just after he completed a degree in chemistry at the University of Vienna. Moving to Britain he became involved in X-ray crystallography at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, using the method to study the structure of proteins. In 1959 he managed to work out the structure of haemoglobin, the protein responsible for transporting oxygen in blood. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for this work in 1962. His research paved the way to understanding how the molecule switches between its deoxygenated and its oxygenated states and oxygen is taken up by muscles and other organs. Pertuz was also the founder and first director of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biololgy in Cambridge, set up in 1962. 2002-02-06T00:00:00+0000The term was coined by a group of scientists Dutch scientists and Francisco Mojica. They used the term to denote clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats in a DNA sequence and its associated genes. R Jansen, J D Embden, W Gaastra, L M, Schouls, 'Identification of genes that are associated with DNA repeats in prokaryotes', Molecular Microbiolology 43/6 (2002): 1565-75.2002-03-01T00:00:00+0000Guidelines included a ban on public funding of research that could lead to cloning, as well as a ban on creating embryos simply for research purposes. It also banned payments to obtain embryos for research.2002-03-04T00:00:00+0000Milstein was an Argentinian biochemist. Together with Georges Kohler, Milstein developed the first unlimited supply of long-lasting monoclonal antibodies. Their technique now underpins the development and application of many diagnostics and therapeutics. Kohler and Milstein devised the method as part of their search for a tool to investigate how the immune system can make so many different kinds antibodies, each able to bind to a highly specific receptor on foreign substances that invade the body. 2002-03-24T00:00:00+0000Research led by Frank J Rauscher, published in Genes and Development.2002-04-14T00:00:00+000015 million euro allocated to projects to network and raise gender awareness; encourage young women to undertake scientific careers, and retain them; on gender research and gender mainstreaming in research.2002-06-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Jul 2001European approval granted for Campath-1H  Campath
Aug 2001US places restricitions on embryonic stem cell research  Stem cells
2 Sep 2001Christiaan Barnard diedBarnardUniversity of Cape TownTransplantation
Oct 2001Human embryo cloned to make stem cells Advanced Cell TechnologyStem cells, gene cloning
25 Oct 2001Structure and function of ribosomes deciphered opening up new era for improving antibiotic drugs and designing new onesYonath, Schlunzen, Zarivach, Harms, Basham, Ticilj, Albrecht, FrancheschiWeizmann InstituteAntibactieral agents, RNA, X ray crystallography
2002Complete genome sequence of the first mammalian model organism, the mouse, is published   DNA Sequencing
2002International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISCF) established  Stem cells
2002First complete purification of multipotent marrow stem cells from mice  Stem cells
2002Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.Compston, ColesCambridge UniversityCampath
2002Ilex Oncology agrees to raise funds to sponsor clinical trials for Campath-1H in MS patients.Compston, BuchalterIlex Oncology, Cambridge UniversityCampath
2002 - 2004Phase II trial tests Campath-1H for relapsing-remitting MS.Compston, ColesCambridge University, Ilex OncologyCampath
2002Suspension of French and US gene therapy trials for treating SCID children  Gene therapy
2002T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3) discovered  Immune checkpoint inhibitors,
2002Doudna appointed Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry DoudnaUniversity of California Berkeley 
6 Feb 2002Max F Perutz diedPerutzLaboratory of Molecular BiologyBiochemistry
Mar 2002Term CRISPR-Cas9 published for first timeMojica, Jansen, Embden, Gaastra, SchoulsUtrecht UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
4 Mar 2002Canadian Institutes of Health Research unveiled guidelines for stem cell research  Stem cells, gene cloning
Mar 2002Cesar Milstein diedMilsteinLaboratory of Molecular BiologyAntibodies, Monoclonal antibodies, Immunology
Apr 2002Identification of new enzyme for silencing certain genes, opening new avenues for cancer treatmentsRauscherWistar InstituteGenetics
Jun 2002European Commission's 6th Framework Programme launched to support women in science   

Jun 2002

European approval granted for Campath-1H

Jun 2002

US places restricitions on embryonic stem cell research

2 Sep 2001

Christiaan Barnard died

Oct 2001

Human embryo cloned to make stem cells

25 Oct 2001

Structure and function of ribosomes deciphered opening up new era for improving antibiotic drugs and designing new ones

2002

Complete genome sequence of the first mammalian model organism, the mouse, is published

2002

International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISCF) established

2002

First complete purification of multipotent marrow stem cells from mice

2002

Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.

2002

Ilex Oncology agrees to raise funds to sponsor clinical trials for Campath-1H in MS patients.

2002 - 2004

Phase II trial tests Campath-1H for relapsing-remitting MS.

2002

Suspension of French and US gene therapy trials for treating SCID children

2002

T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3) discovered

2002

Doudna appointed Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry

6 Feb 2002

Max F Perutz died

Mar 2002

Term CRISPR-Cas9 published for first time

4 Mar 2002

Canadian Institutes of Health Research unveiled guidelines for stem cell research

Mar 2002

Cesar Milstein died

Apr 2002

Identification of new enzyme for silencing certain genes, opening new avenues for cancer treatments

Jun 2002

European Commission's 6th Framework Programme launched to support women in science