Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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2003-05-01T00:00:00+0000Bibikova, M, Beumer, K, Trautman, J K, Carroll, D, 'Enhancing gene targeting with designed zinc finger nucleases', Science 300 (2003): 764.2003-05-02T00:00:00+0000Porteus, M H, Baltimore, D, 'Chimeric nucleases stimulate gene targeting in human cells', Science 300 (2003), 763.2003-05-02T00:00:00+0000Stem cells from baby teeth found to behave much like stem cells harvested from umbilical cord blood. The discovery was made by Songtao Shi, a paediatric dentist, and his colleagues at the US National Institutes of Health. It was made on the basis of investigating baby teeth collected from both Shi's six-year old daughter and her friends. The stem cells were isolated by extracting pulp from the teeth and culturing the cells for several days. A typical incisor tooth was found to have 12 to 20 stem cells. The work was published in M M Miura et al, 'SHED: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth', PNAS, 100/10 (2003), 5807-12.2003-05-13T00:00:00+0000Good was an American physician and scientific researcher whose work on the cellular mechanisms of immunity earned him the reputation as one of the founders of modern immunology. In 1962 he helped demonstrate the two-component system of immunity. The first consisted of T cells, produced by the thymus gland, which he showed were important players in cell-mediated immunity. The second were the B cells, produced by the bone marrow, which he identified as responsible for producing antibodies. Three years later he demonstrated the important role tonsils play in the immune system. In addition to these landmark discoveries, he worked out, through experiments on mice, the crucial role of T cells in the rejection of skin allografts. He used this finding to perform the first successful bone marrow transplant between persons who were not identical twins.2003-06-13T00:00:00+0000Robbins was an American paediatrician and virologist who made his name in 1941 by helping to develop a tissue culture technique to grow the polio virus, one of the most feared diseases at the time. The method involved the growth of the virus using a mixture of human embryonic skin and muscle tissue. It provided an important step towards the development of a vaccine against polio. The tissue culture technique also helped scientists discover new respiratory viruses and paved the way to being able to culture the measles virus to make a vaccine against it. Robbins shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his work. 2003-08-04T00:00:00+0000The Chinese regulatory authority approved Gendicine from Shenzhen SiBiono GeneTech. The treatment is designed to deliver the p53 gene, via an adenovirus vector, to treat squamous cell head and neck cancer.2003-10-16T00:00:00+0000Padmanee Sharma et al, ‘Frequency of NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 expression in bladder cancer and evidence of a new NY-ESO-1 T-cell epitope in a patient with bladder cancer’, Cancer Immunology, 3 (Dec 13 2003), 19.2003-12-13T00:00:00+0000Dopaminergic cells believed to hold promise for treating Parkinson's disease.2004-01-01T00:00:00+0000ICSCN's aim is to unify international efforts to make stem cell therapy a reality for a broad range of debilitating diseases.2004-01-01T00:00:00+0000Drug developed by OPKO Opthalmologics.2004-01-01T00:00:00+00002004-01-01T00:00:00+0000Foundation created by Nusslein-Volhard, 1995 Nobel Prize winner, to cover the costs of housework and childcare for talented women scientists with children undertaking graduate or postgraduate work at German universities or research institutes2004-01-01T00:00:00+00002004-01-01T00:00:00+00002004-01-01T00:00:00+0000Chase was an American immunologist who in the early 1940s discovered that white blood cells trigger the immune response in the body confronting a foreign invader. His finding laid to rest the belief that antibodies by themselves could protect the body from allergies and pathogens. Chase also uncovered the second arm of the immune system, known as cell-mediated immunity, paving the way to the discovery of lymphocyte cells and B and T cells.2004-01-05T00:00:00+0000Genzyme pays US1 billion for the acquisition.2004-04-01T00:00:00+0000The diagnostic, called NeutroSpectT, uses a monoclonal antibody, SSEA1, discovered at the Wistar Institute and developed by Palatin Technologies.2004-04-05T00:00:00+0000Research led by Laszlo Otvos published in Molecular Pharmceutics.2004-05-01T00:00:00+0000Lewis was an American developmental geneticist who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development. He made these discoveries based on the fruit fly. By crossbreeding thousands of flies he demonstrated that genes were arranged on the chromosome in the same order as their body segments, whereby the first set of genes controls the development of the head and thorax, the middle set the abdomen, and the final set the hind parts. He also discovered that the genetic regulatory functions could overlap. A fly with a defective gene in the thoracic region could develop an extra set of wings. His work helped explain the causes of congenital deformities. 2004-07-21T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
May 2003GAVI/VF reported that 48 (64%) of poor countries eligible for their support had received funding to introduce hepatitits B vaccine  Vaccine
2 May 2003Publication of successful use of zinc finger enzymes to correct genes in Drosophila (fruit fly).Bibikova, Beumer, Trautman, CarrollUniversity of UtahGene editing, Zinc fingers
2 May 2003Zinc finger method shown to be effective for gene targeting in mammalian somatic cellsPorteus, BaltimoreCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGene editing, Zinc fingers
13 May 2003Dental pulp from baby teeth demonstrated to be source for stem cellsShi, Miura, Gronthos, Zhao, Lu, Fisher, Gehron Robey, NIHStem cells
13 Jun 2003Robert A Good diedGoodUniversity of MinnesotaImmunology, Transplantation
4 Aug 2003Frederick Chapman Robbins diedRobbinsWestern Reserve UniversityVirology, Vaccine
16 Oct 2003China approved the world's first commercial gene therapy  Gene therapy, p53
13 Dec 2003Sharma discovered some bladder cancer cells expressed the marker NY-ESO-1 providing means for cancer vaccineSharmaMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterCancer immunotherapy, Oncology
2004First derivation of dopaminergic cells from human embryonic stem cells  Stem cells
2004International Consortium of Stem Cell Networks (ICSCN) initiated  Stem cells
2004Phase I trial launched with RNAi treatment (Cand5) for wet age-related macular degeneration  RNA interference
2004FDA approved first DNA methylation inhibitor drug, azacitidine (Vidaza®), for treatment of rare bone marrow disorder  DNA methylation, Epigenetics
2004Christiane Nusslein-Volhard Foundation establishedNusslein-VolhardMax Planck Institute 
2004Davies appointed Director-General of Research and Development at the Department of HealthDavies  
2004Davies appointed Chief Scientific Adviser to the Department of HealthDavies  
5 Jan 2004Merrill W Chase diedChaseRockefeller UniversityAntibodies, Immunology
Apr 2004Genzyme acquires Ilex Oncology. Genzyme, Ilex OncologyCampath
Apr 2004US FDA approved new imaging agent for detecting difficult to diagnose cases of appendicitis Wistar Institute, Palatin TechnologiesMonoclonal antibodies
May 2004Study published demonstrating feasibility of using insect-derived antimicrobial peptice as drug-delivery vehicle OtvosWistar Institute 
21 Jul 2004Edward B Lewis diedLewisCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGenetics, Embryology

May 2003

GAVI/VF reported that 48 (64%) of poor countries eligible for their support had received funding to introduce hepatitits B vaccine

2 May 2003

Publication of successful use of zinc finger enzymes to correct genes in Drosophila (fruit fly).

2 May 2003

Zinc finger method shown to be effective for gene targeting in mammalian somatic cells

13 May 2003

Dental pulp from baby teeth demonstrated to be source for stem cells

13 Jun 2003

Robert A Good died

4 Aug 2003

Frederick Chapman Robbins died

16 Oct 2003

China approved the world's first commercial gene therapy

13 Dec 2003

Sharma discovered some bladder cancer cells expressed the marker NY-ESO-1 providing means for cancer vaccine

2004

First derivation of dopaminergic cells from human embryonic stem cells

2004

International Consortium of Stem Cell Networks (ICSCN) initiated

2004

Phase I trial launched with RNAi treatment (Cand5) for wet age-related macular degeneration

2004

FDA approved first DNA methylation inhibitor drug, azacitidine (Vidaza®), for treatment of rare bone marrow disorder

2004

Christiane Nusslein-Volhard Foundation established

2004

Davies appointed Director-General of Research and Development at the Department of Health

2004

Davies appointed Chief Scientific Adviser to the Department of Health

5 Jan 2004

Merrill W Chase died

5 Jan 2004

Genzyme acquires Ilex Oncology.

Apr 2004

US FDA approved new imaging agent for detecting difficult to diagnose cases of appendicitis

May 2004

Study published demonstrating feasibility of using insect-derived antimicrobial peptice as drug-delivery vehicle

21 Jul 2004

Edward B Lewis died