Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Meeting held under auspices of European Commission's research directorate, DGXII, organised by Nicole Dewandre. Calls for and calls for establishment of network to document best practice in European Union member states1999-07-01T00:00:00+0000M. Toyota, N. Ahuja, M. Ohe-Toyota, J.G. Herman, S.B. Baylin, J-P.J. Issa, 'CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer', PNAS, 96/15 (1999), 8681–86.1999-07-20T00:00:00+0000The alliance is for the marketing of Campath-1H.1999-08-01T00:00:00+00001999-09-01T00:00:00+0000Jesse Gelsinger, an 18 year old, died after suffering a severe immune response to an adenoviral vector in a dose escalation trial testing gene therapy for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, an inherited metabolic disorder. His death led to a major reappraisal of gene therapy and stricter regulations for clinical trials investigating gene therapy.1999-09-17T00:00:00+0000H.D. Morgan, H.G. Sutherland, D.I. Martin, E. Whitelaw, 'Epigenetic inheritance at the agouti locus in the mouse', Nature Genetics, 23 (1991), 314–18.1999-11-01T00:00:00+0000Each delegate assigned task to produce report describing existing national policies to promote women in science1999-11-01T00:00:00+0000Nathans was the first scientist to demonstrate how restriction enzymes could be used to cleave DNA and how to piece together its fragments to construct a complete map of DNA. His work inspired the use of restriction enzymes for many different biotechnology applications, including DNA sequencing and the construction of recombinant DNA. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1978 for his work on restriction enzymes.1999-11-16T00:00:00+0000Millennium Pharmaceuticals pays US$750 million in stock.1999-12-01T00:00:00+0000An application is submitted. 1999-12-01T00:00:00+0000Together with Herbert Boyer, Swanson helped found Genentech, the first biotechnology company dedicated to commercialising recombinant DNA. From 1976 to 1990 Swanson was Chief Executive and Director of the company and played an instrumental role in leading it to become the first major biotechnology company to show a profit and go public. 1999-12-06T00:00:00+0000Treatment uses procedure devised by Bordignon.1999-12-01T00:00:00+00002000-01-01T00:00:00+0000Identified by Jonas Frisen and colleagues2000-01-01T00:00:00+00002000-01-01T00:00:00+0000Boys participating in multi-centre trial using procedure devised by Bordignon2000-01-01T00:00:00+0000Launched by the biotechnology company Medarex in collaboration with Jim Allison. 2000-01-01T00:00:00+0000N Krauzewicz, K Stokrova, C Jenkins, M Elliott, CF Higgns, BE Griffin, ‘Virus-like gene transfer to cell nuclei mediated by polyoma virus pseudocapsids’, Gene Therapy, 7 (2000), 2122-31.2000-01-02T00:00:00+0000Mojica F J, Diez-Villasenor C, Soria E, Juez G, 'Biological significance of a family of regularly spaced repeats in the genomes of Archaea, Bacteria and mitochondria', Molecular Microbiology 36/1 (April 2000): 244–6.2000-01-18T00:00:00+0000Benesch was a biochemist who helped discover how haemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells, transports oxygen from the lungs to all cells in the body. This she did with her husband Reinhold in 1967. They subsequently made important breakthroughs into the formation of sickle cells, the cause of sickle-cell anaemia, using the electron microscope. Ruth was one of the 10,000 Jewish children who escaped Nazi Germany to England as part of the Kindertransport programme. 2000-03-25T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Jul 1999Meeting of 70 European organisations in Brussels issues joint statement describing the under-representation of women in science as 'a serious obstacle for the development of the sciences and for European society' Dewandre  
20 Jul 1999DNA methylation of CpG islands shown to be linked to colorectal cancerToyota, Ahuja, Ohe-Toyota, Herman, Baylin, IssaJohns Hopkins UniversityDNA methylation, Epigenetics, Oncology
Aug 1999LeukoSite and Ilex Oncology partner with Schering AG. Leukosite, Ilex Oncology, Schering AGCampath
Sep 1999Sharma's third daughter was bornSharma  
17 Sep 1999Death of the first patient in a gene therapy trial prompted major setback for the fieldGelsinger, WilsonUniversity of PennsylvaniaGene therapy
Nov 1999First evidence from mammals that epigenetic changes can be passed down generations Morgan, Sutherland, Martin, WhitelawUniversity of SydneyEpigenetics
Nov 1999Helsinki Group on Women and Science set up by European Commission    
16 Nov 1999Daniel Nathans diedNathans Johns Hopkins University Restriction enzymes, Recombinant DNA
Dec 1999Millennium Pharmaceuticals acquires LeukoSite. Millennium Pharmaceuticals, LeukositeCampath
Dec 1999Regulatory approval is sought for Campath-1H for the treatment of B-CLL. Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Ilex OncologyCampath
6 Dec 1999Robert Swanson diedSwansonGenentechRecombinant DNA
1999 - 2002Multi-centre trials with gene therapy using stem cells to treat children with SCIDBordignon Gene therapy
2000Complete sequences of the genomes of the fruit fly Drosophila and the first plant, Arabidopsis, are published  DNA Sequencing, Genomics
2000Adult stem cells recognised as having potential to generate variety of cells for other organsFrisenKarolinska InstitutetStem cells
2000Retinal stem cells identified in mice   Stem cells
2000Two French boys suffering from SCID reported to be cured using gene therapy  Gene therapy
2000First clinical trials launched to test first immune checkpoint inhibitor drug containing a monoclonal antibody against CTLA-4 (ipilimumab, Yervoy®)AllisonMedarex, University of California BerkleyImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Immunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Monoclonal antibodies
2 Jan 2000Polyoma virus shown to be potential tool for delivering gene therapyKrauzewicz, Stokrova, Jenkins, Elliott, Higgns, GriffinImperial College, Czech Academy of Sciences, University of WalesGene therapy
18 Jan 2000More clustered repeats of DNA identified in other bacteria and archaea, termed Short Regularly Spaced Repeats (SRSR)Mojica, Diez-Villasenor, Soria, Juez University of Alicante, University Miguel HernandezCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
25 Mar 2000Ruth Erica (Leroi) Benesch diedBeneschColumbia UnivesityBiochemistry

Jul 1999

Meeting of 70 European organisations in Brussels issues joint statement describing the under-representation of women in science as 'a serious obstacle for the development of the sciences and for European society'

20 Jul 1999

DNA methylation of CpG islands shown to be linked to colorectal cancer

Aug 1999

LeukoSite and Ilex Oncology partner with Schering AG.

Sep 1999

Sharma's third daughter was born

17 Sep 1999

Death of the first patient in a gene therapy trial prompted major setback for the field

Nov 1999

First evidence from mammals that epigenetic changes can be passed down generations

Nov 1999

Helsinki Group on Women and Science set up by European Commission

16 Nov 1999

Daniel Nathans died

16 Nov 1999

Millennium Pharmaceuticals acquires LeukoSite.

16 Nov 1999

Regulatory approval is sought for Campath-1H for the treatment of B-CLL.

6 Dec 1999

Robert Swanson died

1999 - 2002

Multi-centre trials with gene therapy using stem cells to treat children with SCID

2000

Complete sequences of the genomes of the fruit fly Drosophila and the first plant, Arabidopsis, are published

2000

Adult stem cells recognised as having potential to generate variety of cells for other organs

2000

Retinal stem cells identified in mice

2000

Two French boys suffering from SCID reported to be cured using gene therapy

2000

First clinical trials launched to test first immune checkpoint inhibitor drug containing a monoclonal antibody against CTLA-4 (ipilimumab, Yervoy®)

2 Jan 2000

Polyoma virus shown to be potential tool for delivering gene therapy

18 Jan 2000

More clustered repeats of DNA identified in other bacteria and archaea, termed Short Regularly Spaced Repeats (SRSR)

25 Mar 2000

Ruth Erica (Leroi) Benesch died