Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Test developed to detect tumour DNA. Study investigated blood samples from 161 patients with stage 2 and 3 melanoma who had received surgery. Results showed that skin cancer was much more likely to return within a year of surgery in patients with faults in either BRAF or NRAS genes. R J Lee et al, 'Circulating tumor DNA predicts survival in patients with resected high-risk stage II/III melanoma', Annals of Oncology, mdx717, https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdx7172017-11-03T00:00:00+0000CTJ van Velthoven, A de Morree, I M Enger, J O Brett, T A Rando, 'Transcriptional Profiling of Quiescent Muscle Stem Cells In Vivo', Cell Reports, 21/1 (2017), 1994-2004. 2017-11-14T00:00:00+0000Discovery made as a result of study of 177 members of the Old Order of Amish community in Indiana. S. Khan, et al, 'A null mutation in SERPINE1 protects against biological aging in humans', Science Advances, 3/11 (2017), DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao16172017-11-15T00:00:00+0000Treatment involved editing the patient's DNA using zinc finger nucleases technique. it was carried out on Brian Madeux, 44 year old man suffering from Hunter syndome, a metabolic disorder. Treatment was carried out by Paul Harmatz and his team at UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital. 2017-11-16T00:00:00+0000Patients with severe haemophilia A received a single infusion of a copy of a missing gene that allows their cells to produce Factor VIII, a protein needed to stop bleeding. This was delivered using an adeno-associated virus vector. The patients were enrolled between September 2015 and April 2016 into one of three dose cohorts at five sites across the UK. The five UK trial sites included: The Royal London, Guys and St Thomas', Birmingham, Cambridge and Hampshire hospitals. At 54 week follow-up 85% of the patients were found to have normal or near normal Factor VIII levels. Thirteen of the patients no longer needed their previously regular treatment. S. Rangarajan, et al, 'AAV5–Factor VIII Gene Transfer in Severe Hemophilia A', New England Journal of Medicine (9 Dec 2017), DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1708483.2017-12-09T00:00:00+0000C T Charlesworth et al, 'Identification of Pre-Existing Adaptive Immunity to Cas9 Proteins in Humans', bioRXiv (2018), https://doi.org/10.1101/2433452018-01-05T00:00:00+0000The test hunts for 16 gene that regularly arise in cancer and 8 proteins released by tumours. It was trialled in 1,005 patients with cancers of the ovary, liver, stomach, pancreas, oesophagus, colon, lung or breast that had not yet spread to other tissues. J.D. Cohen et al, Detection and localization of surgically resectable cancers with a multi-analyte blood test', Science, 18 Jan 2018, eaar3247, DOI: 10.1126/science.aar3247 2018-01-17T00:00:00+0000Z. Liu et al, 'Cloning of macaque monkeys by somatic cell nuclear transfer', Cell (2018), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020 2018-01-24T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
3 Nov 2017Research published demonstrating simple blood test can identify which patients are at most risk of skin cancer returningLee, Gremel, Marshall, Myers, Fisher, Dunn, Dhomen, Corrie, Middleton, Lorigan, MaraisUniversity of ManchesterOncology, DNA sequencing
14 Nov 2017Stem cells in the body found to have significantly different gene-expression profile than stem cells isolated and cultivated in the laboratory van Velthoven, de Morree, Enger, Brett, Rando, Stanford UniversityStem cells
15 Nov 2017Rare mutation of gene called Serpine 1 discovered to protect against biological ageing processKhan, Shah, Klyachko, Baldridge, Eren, Place, Aviv, Puterman, Lloyd-Jones, Heiman, Miyata, Gupta, Shapiro, VaughanNorthwestern University, University of British Columbia, New Jersey Medical School, Tohoku University, DNA sequencing, Genetics, Genomics
16 Nov 2017First patient receives therapy involving gene editing inside the bodyHarmatz, MadeuxUniversity of California San FranciscoGene therapy, Gene editing, Zinc fingers
9 Dec 2017Gene therapy shown to be safe and efficacious treatment for haemophilia A in British trialsRangarajan, Walsh, Lester, Perry, Madan, Laffan, Hua Yu, Vettermann, Pierce, Wong, PasiBarts Health NHS Trust, Queen Mary University, BioMarin PharmaceuticalGene therapy
5 Jan 2018Researchers identify pre-existing antibodies targeting CAS9 proteins raising possibility of immune responses undermining utility of CRISPR-Cas9 for gene therapyCharlesworth, Deshpande, Dever, Dejene,Gomez-Ospina, Mantri, Pavel-Dinu, Camarena, Weinberg, PorteusStanford UniversityGene therapy, Gene editing, CRISPR-Cas9
17 Jan 2018Blood test detecting mutated DNA and proteins released by tumours shown to pick up early signs of 8 common cancersCohen, Yuxuan Wang, Thoburn, Afsari, Danilova. Douville, Javed, Wong, Mattox, Hruban, Wolfgang, Goggins, Molin, Wang, Roden, Klein, Ptak, Dobbyn, Schaefer, Silliman, Popoli, Vogelstein, Browne, Schoen, Brand, Tie, Gibbs, Wong, Mansfield, Jen, Hanash, FalcJohns Hopkins UniversityDiagnostics, Oncology
24 Jan 2018Chinese scientists cloned the first monkeys by somatic cell nuclear transferLiu, Cai, Wang, Nie, Zhang, Xu, Xiatong, Zhang, Lu, Poo, SunChinese Academy of SciencesCloning

3 Nov 2017

Research published demonstrating simple blood test can identify which patients are at most risk of skin cancer returning

14 Nov 2017

Stem cells in the body found to have significantly different gene-expression profile than stem cells isolated and cultivated in the laboratory

15 Nov 2017

Rare mutation of gene called Serpine 1 discovered to protect against biological ageing process

16 Nov 2017

First patient receives therapy involving gene editing inside the body

9 Dec 2017

Gene therapy shown to be safe and efficacious treatment for haemophilia A in British trials

5 Jan 2018

Researchers identify pre-existing antibodies targeting CAS9 proteins raising possibility of immune responses undermining utility of CRISPR-Cas9 for gene therapy

17 Jan 2018

Blood test detecting mutated DNA and proteins released by tumours shown to pick up early signs of 8 common cancers

24 Jan 2018

Chinese scientists cloned the first monkeys by somatic cell nuclear transfer