Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Study conducted by team led by Shelley Berger published in Molecular Cell.2005-02-17T00:00:00+00002005-03-30T00:00:00+0000Urnov, F D, Miller, J C, Lee, Y, Beausejour, et al, 'Highly efficient endogenous human gene correction using designed zinc-finger nucleases', Nature, 435, (2005), 646–51.2005-04-03T00:00:00+0000The two companies agreed to share the costs and responsibilities of research and product development up to the completion of a Phase 2 clinical study in each party's territory.2005-05-01T00:00:00+00002005-05-13T00:00:00+0000Andras Nagy created embryonic stem cell lines from donated embryos no longer needed by couples undergoing fertility treatment. This laid the foundation for the creation of embryonic stem cells from human skin four years later. 2005-06-15T00:00:00+0000Organisations awarded bronze, silver and gold awards to identify 'employers of choice'. Scheme evolved out of work between Athena Project and the Scientific Women's Academic Network (SWAN). Charter requires commitment at all levels of an organisation to tackle inequalities of women in science and chancing attitudes and culture. Charter supported by Equality Challenge Unit and UKRC.2005-06-22T00:00:00+0000The scientists made the suggestion based on sequence analysis of CRISPR structures from 24 strains of the bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus and Streptococcus vestibularis. They published their findings in A Bolotin, B Quinquis, A Sorokin, S D Ehrlich, 'Clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPRs) have spacers of extrachromosomal origin', Microbiology, 151/Pt 8 (2005): 2551-6.2005-08-01T00:00:00+0000A team at Harvard Stem Cell Institute reported fusing adult skin cells with embryonic stem cells to reset the culture so that the cells behave like embryonic stem cells. The researchers did the work using pelvic bone cells as the somatic cells and a different human embryonic cell line. Chad A Cowan, Jocelyn Alenza, Douglas A Melton, Kevin Eggan, 'Nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells after fusion with human embryonic stem cells', Science, 309/5739 (2005), 1369-73. 2005-08-25T00:00:00+0000D H Haft, J Selengut, E F Mongodin, K E Nelson, 'A guild of 45 CRISPR-associated (Cas) protein families and multiple CRISPR/Cas subtypes exist in prokaryotic genomes', PLoS Computational Biology 2005 Nov;1(6):e60. Epub 2005 Nov 11.2005-11-11T00:00:00+0000D H Haft, J Selengut, E F Mongodin, K E Nelson, 'A Guild of 45 CRISPR-Associated (Cas) Protein Families and Multiple CRISPR/Cas Subtypes Exist in Prokaryotic Genomes', PLoS Computational Biology, 1/6 (2005): e60. 2005-11-11T00:00:00+0000AA Sablina, et al, 'The antioxidant function of the p53 tumor suppressor', Nature Medicine, 11 (2005), 1306–13.2005-12-01T00:00:00+00002006-01-01T00:00:00+0000The resulting company is Bayer Schering Pharma.2006-01-01T00:00:00+0000Awarded to Andrew Fire and Craig C Mello for their work on RNAi in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans published in 1998.2006-01-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine RotaTeq took 25 years to develop. It was developed by Stanley Plotkin, H Fred Clark and Paul Offit.2006-01-01T00:00:00+0000Schoemaker was a Dutch biochemist who was co-founder and first Chief Executive Officer of Centocor, an American biotechnology company that pioneered the commercialisation of monoclonal antibody diagnostics and therapeutics. After Centocor was sold to Johnson & Johnson for $5.2 billion in 1999, Schoemaker founded Neuronyx to develop cellular therapies. One of the treatments pioneered by Neuronyx was the use of stem cells from bone marrow to help regenerate heart tissue damaged by heart attacks. 2006-01-01T00:00:00+0000Drug made by MGI Pharma. approved for treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes, bone marrow disorders2006-01-01T00:00:00+00002006-01-01T00:00:00+00002006-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Feb 2005Enzyme Ubp10 demonstrated to protect the genome from potential destabilising molecular eventsBerger, EmreWistar InstituteDNA, Genetics
30 Mar 2005FDA approved entecavir, an antiviral drug, for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults and children under 2 years old   
3 Apr 2005Zinc finger method reported capable of modifying some genes in the human genome, laying the foundation for its use as tool to correct genes for monogenic disordersUrnov, Miller, Lee, BeausejourSangamo BioSciences, University of Texas Southwester Medical CenterGene therapy, Gene editing, Zinc fingers
May 2005Medarex and Ono Pharmaceuticals entered research alliance to develop a fully human anti-PD-1 antibody for the treatment of cancer Medarex, Ono PharmaceuticalImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Immunotherapy, Monoclonal antibodies
13 May 2005FDA approved peginterferon alfa-2a, an antiviral drug, for patients with chronic hepatitis B who failed previous antiviral treatment Roche 
15 Jun 2005Canadian researchers created the country's first embryonic stem cell linesNagySamuel Lunenfeld Research InstituteStem cells
22 Jun 2005Athena SWAN Charter recognition scheme launched to advance representation of women in science, technology, medicine and mathematics in UK universities   
1 Aug 2005French scientists suggested CRISPR spacer sequences can provide cell immunity against phage infection and degrade DNABolotin, Quinquis, Sorokin, EhrlichInstitut National de la Recherche AgronomiqueCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
25 Aug 2005Harvard scientists reported reprogramming adult skin cells into embryonic stem cells Cowan, Eggan, Melton, AlienzaHarvard Stem Cell InstituteStem cells
Nov 2005American scientists report CRISPR-Cas subtypes common in prokaryotic genomesHaft, Selengut, Mongodin, NelsonThe Institute for Genomic Research 
Nov 2005American researchers identified new familes of Cas genes which appeared to help in protecting bacteria against invading virusesHaft, Selengut, Mongodin, NelsonThe Institute for Genomic ResearchCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Dec 2005p53 found to have antioxidant functionSablina, Budanov, Ilyinskaya, Agapova, Kravchenko, ChumakovLerner Research InstituteOncology, p53
2006Normal mammary stem cells demonstrated in adult mice   Stem cells
2006Schering AG merges with Bayer Bayer, Schering AGCampath
2006Nobel Prize awarded for RNA inteference workFire, MelloCarnegie Institution of Washington, University of MassachusettsRNA interference
2006Vaccine approved for preventing rotavirus, a major kiler of children Plotkin, Clark, OffitWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
1 Jan 2006Hubert Schoemaker died in Philadelphia, USASchoemaker Monoclonal antibodies, Stem cells
2006FDA approved second DNA methylation inhibitior, decatabine (Dacogen)  DNA methylation, Epigenetics
2006Davies founded and became director of National Institute of Health ResearchDavies  
2006Sharma's first marriage ended in divorceSharma  

Feb 2005

Enzyme Ubp10 demonstrated to protect the genome from potential destabilising molecular events

30 Mar 2005

FDA approved entecavir, an antiviral drug, for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults and children under 2 years old

3 Apr 2005

Zinc finger method reported capable of modifying some genes in the human genome, laying the foundation for its use as tool to correct genes for monogenic disorders

May 2005

Medarex and Ono Pharmaceuticals entered research alliance to develop a fully human anti-PD-1 antibody for the treatment of cancer

13 May 2005

FDA approved peginterferon alfa-2a, an antiviral drug, for patients with chronic hepatitis B who failed previous antiviral treatment

15 Jun 2005

Canadian researchers created the country's first embryonic stem cell lines

22 Jun 2005

Athena SWAN Charter recognition scheme launched to advance representation of women in science, technology, medicine and mathematics in UK universities

1 Aug 2005

French scientists suggested CRISPR spacer sequences can provide cell immunity against phage infection and degrade DNA

25 Aug 2005

Harvard scientists reported reprogramming adult skin cells into embryonic stem cells

Nov 2005

American scientists report CRISPR-Cas subtypes common in prokaryotic genomes

Nov 2005

American researchers identified new familes of Cas genes which appeared to help in protecting bacteria against invading viruses

Dec 2005

p53 found to have antioxidant function

2006

Normal mammary stem cells demonstrated in adult mice

2006

Schering AG merges with Bayer

2006

Nobel Prize awarded for RNA inteference work

2006

Vaccine approved for preventing rotavirus, a major kiler of children

1 Jan 2006

Hubert Schoemaker died in Philadelphia, USA

2006

FDA approved second DNA methylation inhibitior, decatabine (Dacogen)

2006

Davies founded and became director of National Institute of Health Research

2006

Sharma's first marriage ended in divorce