Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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A Ventura, et al, 'Restoration of p53 function leads to tumour regression in vivo', Nature, 445 (2007), 661-5; W Xue, et al, 'Senescence and tumour clearance is triggered by p53 restoration in murine liver carcinomas', Nature, 445 (2007), 656–60.2007-01-01T00:00:00+0000GT Bommer et al, Current Biology, 17 (2007), 1298–307; TC Chang et al, Molecular Cell, 26 (2007), 745–52; L He et al, Nature, 447 (2007), 1130–4; N Raver-Shapira et al, Molecular Cell, 26 (2007), 731–43; V Tarasov et al, Cell Cycle, 6 (2007), 1586–93; H Tazawa et al, PNAS, 104 (2007), 15472–7.2007-01-01T00:00:00+0000Z Feng et al, 'The regulation of AMPK beta1, TSC2, and PTEN expression by p53: stress, cell and tissue specificity, and the role of these gene products in modulating the IGF-1-AKT-mTOR pathways', Cancer Research, 67 (2007), 3043–53.2007-01-01T00:00:00+00002007-01-01T00:00:00+00002007-01-01T00:00:00+00002007-01-01T00:00:00+00002007-01-01T00:00:00+0000U.S. researchers isolated stem cells from amniotic fluid and placental tissue left over from routine prenatal tests used to detect foetal abnormalities. The amniotic fluid stem cells have characteristics of both human embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. But they do not form tumours when implanted in lab animals, as embryonic cells can do. P De Coppi, et al, 'Isolation of amniotic stem cell lines with potential for therapy', Nature Biotechnology, 25/1 (200&, 100-6.2007-01-07T00:00:00+0000The experiments were conducted by microbiologists based at the food manufacturing company Danisco. R Barrangou, C Fremaux, H Deveau, et al, 'CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes', Science, 315/5819 (2007): 1709-12.2007-03-23T00:00:00+0000Lauterbur was an American chemist who is credited with the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for scanning the body for diagnosis. He helped introduce gradients in the magnetic field which made it possible to determine the source of radio waves emitted from the nuclei of the object being investigated. This was a major breakthrough as it allowed MRI to shift on from being used as a tool merely used to study the chemical structure of substances to allowing for the production of images of the body. Lauterbur shared the 1990 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his pioneering work on MRI.2007-03-27T00:00:00+00002007-04-27T00:00:00+0000Two different groups demonstrated through experiments in mice that normal skin cells could be reprogrammed to an embryonic state. Prior to this embryonic stem cells were created by implanting DNA into an egg, which would then grow to provide a supply of stem cells. This earlier technique involved the destruction of a viable embryo. The scientists found the trick was to add four genes to a somatic cell's existing complement of DNA. These genes code for a set of proteins that prompt the cell to exhibit embryonic properties. The research was carried out by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University and James Thomson at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. 2007-06-06T00:00:00+00002007-09-01T00:00:00+0000The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority allowed for the fusion of human-animal embryos, also known as chimeras, to create stem cells. 2007-09-05T00:00:00+0000Results presented by Zheng Cui to third conference on 'Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence' held at Queen’s College Cambridge, UK.2007-09-20T00:00:00+0000Saruhashi is renowned for being the first scientist to demonstrate the dangers of radioactive fallout in seawater that resulted from nuclear bomb testing in 1954. Her evidence was later used to prevent further nuclear testing by governments. Despite her achievement, she suffered discrimination as a woman scientist. She was the first woman to earn a doctorate in chemistry from the University of Tokyo in 1957. Convinced that technical expertise was the key to women's independence she established the Society of Japanese Scientists in 1958 to promote women in science.2007-09-29T00:00:00+0000Kornberg was an American biochemist renowned for his research on enzymes which create DNA. In 1956 he and his team isolated the first enzyme known to be involved in the replication of DNA. It would be called DNA polymerase I. For this work Kornberg shared the 1959 Nobel Prize for Medicine. The Prize was given for the discovery of the 'mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.'2007-10-26T00:00:00+0000W Hu et al, 'p53 regulates maternal reproduction through LIF', Nature, 450 (2007), 721–4.2007-11-01T00:00:00+0000Research led by Emmanuel Skordalakes published in the journal 'Structure'. 2007-11-13T00:00:00+0000Japanese researchers Shinya Yamanaka and Kazutoshi Takahashi reported the generation of pluripotent stem cells from mature human fibroblasts. Their technique opened the possibility of producing stem cells from almost any other human cell. They published their method in K Takahashi, K Tanabe, M Onnuki, et al 'Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors', Cell, 131/5 (2007), 861-72.2007-11-30T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
2007p53-induced senescence shown to prevent cancerVentura, Kirsch, McLaughlin, Tuveson, Grimm, Lintault, Newman, Reczek, Weissleder, Jacks, Xue, Zender, Miething, Dickins, Hernando, Krizhanovsky, Cordon-Cardo, LoweMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryOncology, p53
2007p53 shown to regulate miRNA expressionBommer, Chang, He, Raver-Shapira, Tarasov, TazawaUniversity of Michigan, Johns Hopkins University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Stony Brook University, Rosetta Inpharmatics, Applied Biosystems, Weizmann Institute, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistryp53
2007p53 shown to inhibit the signallying pathways in cell growth and divisionFeng, Hu, de Stanchina, Teresky, Jin, Lowe, LevineCancer Institute of New Jerseyp53
2007Small trial published demonstrating possibility of using gene therapy for inherited retinal diseaseBennettUniversity of PennsylvaniaGene therapy
2007WHO reported that 71 (89%) of its 193 member states had initiated a hepatitis B vaccination programme  Vaccine
2007Brigette Askonas made foreign associate of US National Academy of SciencesAskonas  
2007Askonas awarded Robert Koch medal for her life-long contribution to immunologyAskonas  
Jan 2007Scientists isolated new stem cell source in amniotic fluidDe Coppi, Bartsch, Siddiqui, Xu, Santos, Perin, Mostoslavsky, Serre, Snyder, Yoo, Furth, Soker, Atala Stem cells, Regenerative medicine
23 Mar 2007Experiments demonstrate for the first time the role of CRISPR together with Cas9 genes in protecting bacteria against virusesBarrangou, Horvath, Fremaux, Deveau, Danisco USA IncCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
27 Mar 2007Paul C Lauterbur diedLauterbaurState University of New York, University of IllnoisDiagnostic imaging
Apr 2007Canadian researchers converted normal human blood cells into leukaemia stem cells to investigate leukaemiaDick Stem cells
Jun 2007Skin cells reprogrammed to become like embryonic stem cellsYamanakaKyoto University, University of Wisconsin-MadisonStem cells
Sep 2007FDA approved Campath-1H as first-line treatment for B-CLL  Campath
5 Sep 2007British regulators approved human-animal embryo research  Stem cells
20 Sep 2007Experiments in mice indicate cancer-killing capacity of granulocytes, white blood cells taken from humansCuiWake Forest UniversityCancer Immunotherapy, Oncology
29 Sep 2007Katsuko Saruhashi diedSaruhashi  
26 Oct 2007Arthur Kornberg diedKornbergStanford UniversityGenetics, DNA, RNA
Nov 2007p53 shown to be required for embryo implantationHu, Feng, Teresky, LevineCancer Institute of New Jerseyp53, Reproduction
13 Nov 2007Inappropriate activation of telomerase, an enzyme, shown to be associated with uncontrollable proliferation of cells seen in human cancersSkordalakesWistar InstituteOncology
30 Nov 2007Human cells reprogrammed to make pluripotent stem cellsYamanaka, TakahashiKyoto UniversityStem cells

2007

p53-induced senescence shown to prevent cancer

2007

p53 shown to regulate miRNA expression

2007

p53 shown to inhibit the signallying pathways in cell growth and division

2007

Small trial published demonstrating possibility of using gene therapy for inherited retinal disease

2007

WHO reported that 71 (89%) of its 193 member states had initiated a hepatitis B vaccination programme

2007

Brigette Askonas made foreign associate of US National Academy of Sciences

2007

Askonas awarded Robert Koch medal for her life-long contribution to immunology

Jan 2007

Scientists isolated new stem cell source in amniotic fluid

23 Mar 2007

Experiments demonstrate for the first time the role of CRISPR together with Cas9 genes in protecting bacteria against viruses

27 Mar 2007

Paul C Lauterbur died

Apr 2007

Canadian researchers converted normal human blood cells into leukaemia stem cells to investigate leukaemia

Jun 2007

Skin cells reprogrammed to become like embryonic stem cells

Sep 2007

FDA approved Campath-1H as first-line treatment for B-CLL

5 Sep 2007

British regulators approved human-animal embryo research

20 Sep 2007

Experiments in mice indicate cancer-killing capacity of granulocytes, white blood cells taken from humans

29 Sep 2007

Katsuko Saruhashi died

26 Oct 2007

Arthur Kornberg died

Nov 2007

p53 shown to be required for embryo implantation

13 Nov 2007

Inappropriate activation of telomerase, an enzyme, shown to be associated with uncontrollable proliferation of cells seen in human cancers

30 Nov 2007

Human cells reprogrammed to make pluripotent stem cells