Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Drug made by Merck & Co2006-10-06T00:00:00+0000R.A. Morgan et al, 'Cancer regression in patients after transfer of genetically engineered lymphocytes', Science. 2006;314:126–129.2006-10-06T00:00:00+0000M.H. Kershaw, et al, 'A Phase I Study on Adoptive Immunotherapy Using Gene-Modified T Cells for Ovarian Cancer', Clinical Cancer Research, 11/20 (2006), 6106-15.2006-10-15T00:00:00+00002006-10-25T00:00:00+0000Lederberg is best known for having discovered the lambda phage, an indispensable tool for studying gene regulation and genetic recombination. She also invented the replica plating technique which is pivotal to tracking antibiotic resistance. 2006-11-11T00:00:00+0000Research conducted by collaboration between Wistar Institute and Vienna Biocenter, published in 'Nature'.2006-11-15T00:00:00+00002006-11-16T00:00:00+0000Chatterjee is renowned for her breakthroughs in the development of anti-malarial and anti-epileptic drugs. She was the first woman to receive a doctorate in science from an Indian university - Calcutta University.2006-11-22T00:00:00+0000The Prize was awarded to to Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans and Oliver Smithies. Their work made it possible to modify specoific genes in the germline of mammals which could produce offspring that carried and expressed the modified gene. Their method is commonly called knockout technology. This has given scientists the means to study the role of specific genes in development, physiology and pathology. 2007-01-01T00:00:00+00002007-01-01T00:00:00+00002007-01-01T00:00:00+0000Positive results reported from 1,779 patients.2007-01-01T00:00:00+0000Roche pays US$331 million for limited access to RNAi therapeutic platform.2007-01-01T00:00:00+0000Levinsky was a South African born immunologist who specialised in immunodeficiency diseases. In 1979 he performed Britain's first successful bone marrow transplant at Great Ormond Street in London with Christine Kinnon and Adrian Thrasher. His work laid the pathway to the discovery of the genetic basis of several primary immunodeficiency diseases. He was one of the first scientists in the UK to obtain funding to conduct clinical trials using gene therapy to treat fatal immunodeficiency conditions. 2007-01-01T00:00:00+0000A Ventura, et al, 'Restoration of p53 function leads to tumour regression in vivo', Nature, 445 (2007), 661-5; W Xue, et al, 'Senescence and tumour clearance is triggered by p53 restoration in murine liver carcinomas', Nature, 445 (2007), 656–60.2007-01-01T00:00:00+0000GT Bommer et al, Current Biology, 17 (2007), 1298–307; TC Chang et al, Molecular Cell, 26 (2007), 745–52; L He et al, Nature, 447 (2007), 1130–4; N Raver-Shapira et al, Molecular Cell, 26 (2007), 731–43; V Tarasov et al, Cell Cycle, 6 (2007), 1586–93; H Tazawa et al, PNAS, 104 (2007), 15472–7.2007-01-01T00:00:00+0000Z Feng et al, 'The regulation of AMPK beta1, TSC2, and PTEN expression by p53: stress, cell and tissue specificity, and the role of these gene products in modulating the IGF-1-AKT-mTOR pathways', Cancer Research, 67 (2007), 3043–53.2007-01-01T00:00:00+00002007-01-01T00:00:00+00002007-01-01T00:00:00+00002007-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
6 Oct 2006FDA approved first histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat (Zolinza), for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma  Epigenetics, Oncology
6 Oct 2006Genetically engineered lymphocytes shown to be promising cancer treatmentMorgan, Dudley, Wunderlich, Hughes, Yang, Sherry, Royal, Topalian, Kammula, Restifo, Zheng, Nahvi Vries, Rogers-Freezer, Mavroukakis, RosenbergNational Cancer InstituteAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
15 Oct 2006Adoptive cellular therapy using chimeric antigen receptor T cells shown to be safe in small group of patients with ovarian cancerKershaw, Westwood, Parker, Wang, Eshhar, Mavroukakis, White, Wunderlich, Canevari, Rogers-Freezer, Chen, Yang, Rosenberg, HwuNational Cancer Institute, University of Melbourne, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Weizmann Institute, Istituto Nazionale TumoriAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
25 Oct 2006FDA approved telbivudine, an antiviral drug, for the treatment of hepatitis B infection Novartis, Idenix 
11 Nov 2006Esther Lederberg diedEsther LederbergWisconsin UniversityGenetics, Antimicrobial resistance, Bacteriophages, Lambda phage
15 Nov 2006New enzyme identified as suppressor of p53 protein, a key molecule for controlling cancer in humansBergerWistar Institute, Vienna BiocenterOncology, p53
16 Nov 2006Stem cell injections reported to ease symptoms in muscular dystrophy in dogs  Stem cells
22 Nov 2006Asima Chatterjee, an Indian organic chemist, diedChatterjeeUniversity of Calcutta 
2007Nobel Prize for Physiology for Medicine awarded for discoveries enabling germline gene modification in mice using embryonic stem cellsCapecchi, Evans, SmithiesUniversity of North Carolina, University of UtahGene editing, Transgenic animals, Stem cells
2007First physical identification and localization of mammalian intestinal stem cells   Stem cells
2007First evidence for human colon cancer stem cells   Stem cells
2007 - 2011Two phase III randomised control trials conducted with Campath-1H in patients with early MSCompston, ColesCambridge University, Ilex Oncology, GenzymeCampath
2007Roche signs alliance with Alynlam for RNAi therapeutics  RNA interference
Jan 2007Roland Levinsky diedLewinskyGreat Ormond Street Hospital, Institute of Child Health, University College LondonTransplantation
2007p53-induced senescence shown to prevent cancerVentura, Kirsch, McLaughlin, Tuveson, Grimm, Lintault, Newman, Reczek, Weissleder, Jacks, Xue, Zender, Miething, Dickins, Hernando, Krizhanovsky, Cordon-Cardo, LoweMassachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryOncology, p53
2007p53 shown to regulate miRNA expressionBommer, Chang, He, Raver-Shapira, Tarasov, TazawaUniversity of Michigan, Johns Hopkins University, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Stony Brook University, Rosetta Inpharmatics, Applied Biosystems, Weizmann Institute, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistryp53
2007p53 shown to inhibit the signallying pathways in cell growth and divisionFeng, Hu, de Stanchina, Teresky, Jin, Lowe, LevineCancer Institute of New Jerseyp53
2007Small trial published demonstrating possibility of using gene therapy for inherited retinal diseaseBennettUniversity of PennsylvaniaGene therapy
2007WHO reported that 71 (89%) of its 193 member states had initiated a hepatitis B vaccination programme  Vaccine
2007Brigette Askonas made foreign associate of US National Academy of SciencesAskonas  

6 Oct 2006

FDA approved first histone deacetylase inhibitor, Vorinostat (Zolinza), for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

6 Oct 2006

Genetically engineered lymphocytes shown to be promising cancer treatment

15 Oct 2006

Adoptive cellular therapy using chimeric antigen receptor T cells shown to be safe in small group of patients with ovarian cancer

25 Oct 2006

FDA approved telbivudine, an antiviral drug, for the treatment of hepatitis B infection

11 Nov 2006

Esther Lederberg died

15 Nov 2006

New enzyme identified as suppressor of p53 protein, a key molecule for controlling cancer in humans

16 Nov 2006

Stem cell injections reported to ease symptoms in muscular dystrophy in dogs

22 Nov 2006

Asima Chatterjee, an Indian organic chemist, died

2007

Nobel Prize for Physiology for Medicine awarded for discoveries enabling germline gene modification in mice using embryonic stem cells

2007

First physical identification and localization of mammalian intestinal stem cells

2007

First evidence for human colon cancer stem cells

2007 - 2011

Two phase III randomised control trials conducted with Campath-1H in patients with early MS

2007

Roche signs alliance with Alynlam for RNAi therapeutics

2007

Roland Levinsky died

2007

p53-induced senescence shown to prevent cancer

2007

p53 shown to regulate miRNA expression

2007

p53 shown to inhibit the signallying pathways in cell growth and division

2007

Small trial published demonstrating possibility of using gene therapy for inherited retinal disease

2007

WHO reported that 71 (89%) of its 193 member states had initiated a hepatitis B vaccination programme

2007

Brigette Askonas made foreign associate of US National Academy of Sciences