Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Term 'bacteriophage, was coined by Felix d'Herelle in 1917. 1815-01-01T00:00:00+0000Brown-Sequard discovered the physiology of the spinal cord and the need for the adrenal gland. He also predicted the existence of hormones.1817-04-08T00:00:00+00001818-01-22T00:00:00+0000Galton is best known as an early pioneer of Eugenics1822-02-16T00:00:00+0000Mendel helped establish the laws of inheritance by studying traits between differerent pea plant generations. His work laid the basis for the study of classical genetics.1822-07-20T00:00:00+0000A French chemist and microbiologist, Pasteur helped develop a method to slow the development of microbes in milk and wine called pasteurisation. He also pioneered the first vaccine against rabies.1822-12-27T00:00:00+0000Jenner helped pioneer the smallpox vaccine and immunisation as a method for preventing disease.1823-01-26T00:00:00+0000Hoppe-Seyler was the first scientist to crystallize haemoglobin and observe its absorption spectrum.1825-12-26T00:00:00+0000Lister pioneered the practice of cleanliness in surgery by introducing the routine use of carbolic acid on surgical instruments and wounds.1827-04-05T00:00:00+0000A French biologist, Lamarck developed a theory of evolution proposing that physical traits were inherited through generations by two forces. The first force was alchemical and second was the environment of an organism. 1829-12-18T00:00:00+0000Kocher won the 1909 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his research and surgical techniques involving the thyroid.1841-08-25T00:00:00+0000von Nageli identified string-like bodies in cell nucleus. He did not know they played role in heredity. 1842-01-01T00:00:00+0000Flemming was the first to describe the behaviour of chromosomes during cell division, a process he called mitosis, and is credited as the founder of cytogenetics. 1843-04-21T00:00:00+0000Golgi was a cytologist who shared the 1906 Nobel Prize in Medicine for research into the nervous system. He developed a microscopic technique, using silver compounds, for seeing new and unseen structures in nerve tissues and individual neurons in the brain.1843-07-07T00:00:00+0000Koch was a major pioneer of modern bacteriology and won the 1905 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his groundbreaking work on tuberculosis. 1843-12-11T00:00:00+0000Mechnikov discovered phagocytes (macrophages), which are a major defence mechanism in the immune system. 1845-05-16T00:00:00+0000Laveran shared the 1907 Nobel Prize for Medicine for identifying protozoan as the cause of malaria. 1845-06-18T00:00:00+0000van Beneden was a cytologist who woked out how chromosomes divide during cell meiosis and that all cells have the same number of chromosomes in each species. 1846-03-05T00:00:00+0000MacEwan was a Scottish physician who developed a technique to locate brain tumours by observing changes in motor and sensory functions.1848-06-22T00:00:00+0000Hertwig was a German biologist who determined that fertilisation started when the nuclei of sperm and ovum cells fused.1849-04-21T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1815Discovery of bacteriophages, type of virus that attacks bacteria, by English bacteriologist William TwortTwortUniversity of LondonPhage display
8 Apr 1817Charles-Edouard Brown-Sequard was born in Port Louis, MauritiusBrown-SequardPort Louis, MauritiusEndocrinology
22 Jan 1818Caspar Wistar died Wistar Institute 
16 Feb 1822Francis Galton was born in Birmingham, United KingdomGaltonBirmingham, United KingdomGenetics
20 Jul 1822Gregor Johann Mendel was born in Hyncice, Czech RepublicMendelHyncice, Czech RepublicGenetics
27 Dec 1822Louis Pasteur was bornPasteurPasteur InstituteBacteriology
26 Jan 1823Edward Jenner diedJenner Immunology, Vaccine
26 Dec 1825Felix Hoppe-Seyler was born in GermanyHoppe-SeylerUniversity of TubingenBiochemistry
5 Apr 1827Joseph Lister was born in West Ham, London, UKListerKing's College London 
18 Dec 1829Jean-Baptiste Lamarck diedLamarckFrench Academy of SciencesGenetics
25 Aug 1841Emil Theodor Kocher was born in Berne, SwitzerlandKocherBerne, Switzerland 
1842First observation of chromosomes by Swiss botanist Karl von NageliNageliGenetics, DNA
21 Apr 1843Walther Flemming was born in Schwerin, GermanyFlemmingUniversity of KielCell, Genetics
7 Jul 1843Camillo Golgi was born in Corteno, ItalyGolgiUniversity of PaviaNeuroscience
11 Dec 1843Robert Koch was born in Clausthal (now Clausthal-Zellerfeld), GermanyKochUniversity of BerlinBacteriology
16 May 1845Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov was born in Kharkov (now Kharkiv), Russian Empire (now Ukraine)MechnikovPasteur InstituteImmunology
18 Jun 1845Charles L Alphonse Laveran was born in Paris, FranceLaveranPasteur InstituteInfectious diseases
5 Mar 1846Edouard van Beneden was born in Leuven, Belgianvan Beneden University of LiegeCell, Genetics
22 Jun 1848William MacEwen was bornMacEwan Neuroscience
21 Apr 1849Oskar Hertwig was born in Friedberg, GermanyHertwigFriedberg, GermanyReproduction

1815

Discovery of bacteriophages, type of virus that attacks bacteria, by English bacteriologist William Twort

8 Apr 1817

Charles-Edouard Brown-Sequard was born in Port Louis, Mauritius

22 Jan 1818

Caspar Wistar died

16 Feb 1822

Francis Galton was born in Birmingham, United Kingdom

20 Jul 1822

Gregor Johann Mendel was born in Hyncice, Czech Republic

27 Dec 1822

Louis Pasteur was born

26 Jan 1823

Edward Jenner died

26 Dec 1825

Felix Hoppe-Seyler was born in Germany

5 Apr 1827

Joseph Lister was born in West Ham, London, UK

18 Dec 1829

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck died

25 Aug 1841

Emil Theodor Kocher was born in Berne, Switzerland

1842

First observation of chromosomes by Swiss botanist Karl von Nageli

21 Apr 1843

Walther Flemming was born in Schwerin, Germany

7 Jul 1843

Camillo Golgi was born in Corteno, Italy

11 Dec 1843

Robert Koch was born in Clausthal (now Clausthal-Zellerfeld), Germany

16 May 1845

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov was born in Kharkov (now Kharkiv), Russian Empire (now Ukraine)

18 Jun 1845

Charles L Alphonse Laveran was born in Paris, France

5 Mar 1846

Edouard van Beneden was born in Leuven, Belgian

22 Jun 1848

William MacEwen was born

21 Apr 1849

Oskar Hertwig was born in Friedberg, Germany