Cambridge University: Timeline of key events

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Hopkins shared the 1929 Nobel Prize for discovering vitamins. 1861-06-20T00:00:00+0000Hodgkin shared the 1963 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.'1914-02-05T00:00:00+0000Studies a combination of chemistry, physics, maths and physiology and specialises in biochemistry in his final year.1936-01-01T00:00:00+0000Initially supervised by Bill Pirie, and then by Albert Neuberger, in the Department of Biochemistry. Thesis: 'On the metabolism of the amino acid lysine in the animal body'. 1940-01-01T00:00:00+0000C.H. Waddington, 'The Epigenotype', Endeavour, 1 (1942), 18-20.1942-01-01T00:00:00+0000Sanger undertakes the research as part of team working with Albert Chibnall in Department of Biochemistry. His work is initially supported by a Beit Memorial Fellowship from 1944 and then by Medical Research Council from 1951. 1944-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hopkins shared the 1929 Nobel Prize for discovering vitamins. 1947-05-16T00:00:00+0000Sanger's insulin results establish for the first time that proteins are chemical entities with a defined sequence. The technique Sanger develops for sequencing insulin later becomes known as the degradation or DNP method. It provides the basis for his later development of sequencing tecdhniques for nucleic acids, including RNA and DNA.1955-01-01T00:00:00+0000Ingram shows that the difference between sickle-cell and normal haemoglobulin lies in just one amino acid. 1957-01-01T00:00:00+0000C.H. Waddington, The Strategy of the Genes: A Discussion of Some Aspects of Theoretical Biology (London, 1957).1957-01-01T00:00:00+0000Prize awarded to Sanger 'for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin'.1958-01-01T00:00:00+00001960-01-01T00:00:00+0000M.F. Lyon, 'Gene action in the X-chromosome of the mouse', Nature, 190 (1961), 372–73.1961-04-22T00:00:00+00001962-01-01T00:00:00+00001978-01-01T00:00:00+0000Referred to as Campath-1 (CAMbridge Pathology) family of antibodies, these are the first set of monoclonal antibodies against human lymphocytes derived from a rat. 1980-01-01T00:00:00+00001981-01-01T00:00:00+0000MJ Evans, MH Kaufman, 'Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos', Nature, 292/154 (1981), 154-56.1981-07-09T00:00:00+0000Campath-1G is humanised, resulting in Campath-1H. It is accomplished with technology developed by Greg Winter.1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000This patent is filed on the basis of work reported in M Brüggeman, HM Caskey, C Teale, H Waldmann, Williams, Surani, and MS Neuberger, A repertoire of monoclonal antibodies with human heavy chains from transgenic mice, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (Sept 1989), 6709-13. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
20 Jun 1861Frederick Gowland Hopkins was born in Eastbourne, United KingdomHopkinsCambridge UniversityBiochemistry
5 Feb 1914Alan Lloyd Hodgkin was born in Banbury, United KingdomHodgkinCambridge UniversityNeuroscience
1936 - 1940Sanger takes degree in Natural Sciences at Cambridge UniversitySangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing
1940 - 1943Sanger studies for a doctorate at Cambridge UniversitySangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing
1942'Epigenetics' coined as a term to describe how genes interact with the environment to produce the physical traits of an organism WaddngtonCambridge UniversityEpigenetics
1944Sanger starts working on amino acid composition of insulinSangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing
16 May 1947Frederick Gowland Hopkins diedHopkinsCambridge UniversityBiochemistry
1955Sanger completes the full sequence of amino acids in insulinSangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing
1957Victor Ingram breaks the genetic code behind sickle-cell anaemia using Sanger's sequencing techniqueIngram, SangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing
1957Conrad Waddington develops model of epigenetic landscape to show the process of cellular decision-making during biological developmentWaddngtonCambridge UniversityEpigenetics, Embryology
1958Sanger awarded his first Nobel Prize in ChemistrySangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing
1960Sanger begins to devise ways to sequence nucleic acids, starting with RNASangerCambridge UniversityDNA Sequencing
22 Apr 1961Genes linked to X-chromosome inactivation in female mice embyosLyonCambridge UniversityEpigenetics, Embyology
1962Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggsGurdon, AltmanCambridge UniversityStem cells
1978Transplantable stem cells discovered in human cord bloodEvansCambridge UniversityStem cells
1980First monoclonal antibodies developed against T-cells which can also activate human complement.Waldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge UniversityMonoclonal antibodies, Campath
1981First embryonic stem cells identified in mice EvansCambridge UniversityStem cells
9 Jul 1981Mouse embryonic stem cells first isolated and cultured in the laboratoryEvans, Kaufman, MartinCambridge University, UCSFStem cells
1988Campath-1H is created - the first clinically useful humanised monoclonal antibody.Winter, Waldmann, Reichmann, ClarkCambridge University, Laboratory of Molecular BiologyMonoclonal antibodies, Recombinant DNA, Campath
1988Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodiesBruggeman, Caskey, Neuberger, Surani, Teale, Waldmann, WilliamsLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Babraham Institute, Cambridge UniversityMonoclonal antibodies, gene cloning, transgenic animals

20 Jun 1861

Frederick Gowland Hopkins was born in Eastbourne, United Kingdom

5 Feb 1914

Alan Lloyd Hodgkin was born in Banbury, United Kingdom

1936 - 1940

Sanger takes degree in Natural Sciences at Cambridge University

1940 - 1943

Sanger studies for a doctorate at Cambridge University

1942

'Epigenetics' coined as a term to describe how genes interact with the environment to produce the physical traits of an organism

1944

Sanger starts working on amino acid composition of insulin

16 May 1947

Frederick Gowland Hopkins died

1955

Sanger completes the full sequence of amino acids in insulin

1957

Victor Ingram breaks the genetic code behind sickle-cell anaemia using Sanger's sequencing technique

1957

Conrad Waddington develops model of epigenetic landscape to show the process of cellular decision-making during biological development

1958

Sanger awarded his first Nobel Prize in Chemistry

1960

Sanger begins to devise ways to sequence nucleic acids, starting with RNA

22 Apr 1961

Genes linked to X-chromosome inactivation in female mice embyos

1962

Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggs

1978

Transplantable stem cells discovered in human cord blood

1980

First monoclonal antibodies developed against T-cells which can also activate human complement.

1981

First embryonic stem cells identified in mice

9 Jul 1981

Mouse embryonic stem cells first isolated and cultured in the laboratory

1988

Campath-1H is created - the first clinically useful humanised monoclonal antibody.

1988

Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodies