Cambridge University: Timeline of key events

Mouseover the event title for a more detailed description of the event (if available). To search for particular terms in the description of the event enter the term in the box below 'Event' on the table and press 'enter'. Alternatively use the dropdown lists to filter by Person, Place or Science. Click here to clear the filter.

Work begins on the development of an anti-T-cell monoclonal antibody that can fix human complement to be used as a tool to prevent graft-versus-host disease in patients receiving bone marrow transplants. 1979-01-01T00:00:00+0000Referred to as Campath-1 (CAMbridge Pathology) family of antibodies, these are the first set of monoclonal antibodies against human lymphocytes derived from a rat. 1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000Waldmann is granted a programme grant to investigate the immunobiology of bone marrow transplantation.1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000The technique was developed by Martin Evans and Matt Kaufman. They showed that by delaying implantation it was possible to obtain slightly enlarged mouse blastocysts and that cells taken from these blastocysts could be used to establish mouse embryo stem cell cultures. The work was published in MJ Evans, MH Kaufman, 'Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos', Nature, 292/154 (1981), 154-56.1981-07-09T00:00:00+0000Krebs was a biochemist who in 1933 was forced to leave Nazi Germany because his father was Jewish. He is best known for having discovered two important chemical reactions in the body - the urea cycle and the citric acid cycle. These chemical reactions help break down food molecules into carbon dioxide, water and energy. He made the breakthrough in the 1930s. The process is known as the Krebs cycle. Krebs was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954.1981-11-22T00:00:00+0000The man treated is suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. While unable to prevent the death of the patient, the trial shows Campath-1M to be effective at depleting T-cells and well-tolerated.1982-01-01T00:00:00+0000The aim is to generate Campath monoclonal antibodies that can be infused directly into patients. 1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000G. Hale et al, 'Removal of T cells from bone marrow for transplantation: a monoclonal antilymphocyte antibody that fixes human complement', Blood, 62, (1983), 873-82.1983-10-25T00:00:00+0000The patient is being cared for by Martin Dyer and Frank Hayhoe. He is suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Although the patient died shortly after treatment from his underlying disease, the result from the testing is promising. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1G is seen as a possible means to reduce immunosuppressive drugs. Fears about the toxicity of the drug prevent work going any further. 1985-01-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1G is humanised, resulting in Campath-1H. It is accomplished with technology developed by Greg Winter.1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000This patent is filed on the basis of work reported in M Brüggeman, HM Caskey, C Teale, H Waldmann, Williams, Surani, and MS Neuberger, A repertoire of monoclonal antibodies with human heavy chains from transgenic mice, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 86 (Sept 1989), 6709-13. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000The patient is a 69 year old woman suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The drug dramatically improves her health. 1988-01-01T00:00:00+0000Patients show marked improvements with the drug.1988-11-01T00:00:00+0000The aim of the centre is to facilitate the production of Campath and other monoclonal antibodies for clinical testing.1990-09-01T00:00:00+0000The research is undertaken by John Isaacs in collaboration with Brian Hazelman at Addenbrooke's Hospital.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000The drug dramatically improves the patient's condition.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000BTG starts negotiations to license Campath to a commercial partner.1993-01-01T00:00:00+0000Coles joins as a doctoral student.1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1979Waldmann is joined in his work by Stephen Cobbold, Geoff Hale, Alan Munro, Don Metcalfe, Suzanne Watt and Hoang Trang.Waldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge UniversityCampath
1980First monoclonal antibodies developed against T-cells which can also activate human complement.Waldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge UniversityMonoclonal antibodies, Campath
1980Waldmann gains MRC funding.WaldmannCambridge UniversityCampath
9 Jul 1981Mouse embryonic stem cells first isolated and cultured in the laboratoryEvans, Kaufman, MartinCambridge UniversityStem cells, Reproduction
22 Nov 1981Hans Adolf Krebs diedKrebsUniversity of Freiburg, Cambridge University, Sheffield University, Oxford UniversityCell, Biochemistry
1982The first patient is treated with Campath-1M.Waldmann, Swirsky, HayhoeCambridge UniversityCampath
1983 - 1985Efforts turn to generating IG Campath monoclonal antibodies.Waldmann, Hale, CobboldCambridge UniversityCampath
Oct 1983Publication of experiments indicating Campath-1 (alemtuzumab) monoclonal antibody activates complement and eliminate T-cellsWaldmann, Cobbold, Hale, Metcalfe. Watt, TrangCambridge UniversityCampath
1985Campath-1G is tested in the first patient.Waldmann, Hayhoe, DyerCambridge UniversityCampath
1985Campath-1G is explored on a small scale for the management of organ transplants by Roy Calne, a British transplant surgeon based at Addenbrooke's hospitalWaldmann, CalneCambridge UniversityCampath
1988Campath-1H is created - the first clinically useful humanised monoclonal antibody.Winter, Waldmann, Reichmann, ClarkCambridge University, Laboratory of Molecular BiologyMonoclonal antibodies, Recombinant DNA, Campath
1988Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodiesBruggeman, Caskey, Neuberger, Surani, Teale, Waldmann, WilliamsLaboratory of Molecular Biology, Babraham Institute, Cambridge UniversityMonoclonal antibodies, gene cloning, transgenic animals
1988Campath-1H is tested in the first humanWaldmann, Hale, Dyer, HayhoeCambridge UniversityCampath
Nov 1988Martin Lockwood, a clinician at Addenbrooke's Hospital, begins testing Campath-1H in patients with vasculitis.Lockwood, Hale, WaldmannCambridge UniversityCampath
Sep 1990The Therapeutic Antibody Centre (TAC) opens in the Regional Transfusion Centre at Addenbrooke's Hospital.Waldmann, HaleCambridge UniversityCampath
1991Campath-1H begins to be tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)Isaacs, Hazleman, Hale, WaldmannCambridge UniversityCampath
1991Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).Waldmann, Hale, CompstonCambridge UniversityCampath
1991The first MS patient is given Campath-1HWaldmann, hale, CompstonCambridge UniversityCampath
1993The rights to Campath are assigned to the British Technology Group (BTG).WaldmannCambridge UniversityCampath
1994Alasdair Coles joins Compston's teamColesCambridge UniversityCampath

1979

Waldmann is joined in his work by Stephen Cobbold, Geoff Hale, Alan Munro, Don Metcalfe, Suzanne Watt and Hoang Trang.

1980

First monoclonal antibodies developed against T-cells which can also activate human complement.

1980

Waldmann gains MRC funding.

9 Jul 1981

Mouse embryonic stem cells first isolated and cultured in the laboratory

22 Nov 1981

Hans Adolf Krebs died

1982

The first patient is treated with Campath-1M.

1983 - 1985

Efforts turn to generating IG Campath monoclonal antibodies.

Oct 1983

Publication of experiments indicating Campath-1 (alemtuzumab) monoclonal antibody activates complement and eliminate T-cells

1985

Campath-1G is tested in the first patient.

1985

Campath-1G is explored on a small scale for the management of organ transplants by Roy Calne, a British transplant surgeon based at Addenbrooke's hospital

1988

Campath-1H is created - the first clinically useful humanised monoclonal antibody.

1988

Patent application filed for a method to create transgenic mice for the production of human antibodies

1988

Campath-1H is tested in the first human

Nov 1988

Martin Lockwood, a clinician at Addenbrooke's Hospital, begins testing Campath-1H in patients with vasculitis.

Nov 1988

The Therapeutic Antibody Centre (TAC) opens in the Regional Transfusion Centre at Addenbrooke's Hospital.

1991

Campath-1H begins to be tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

1991

Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).

1991

The first MS patient is given Campath-1H

1993

The rights to Campath are assigned to the British Technology Group (BTG).

1994

Alasdair Coles joins Compston's team