Cambridge University: Timeline of key events

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The research is undertaken by John Isaacs in collaboration with Brian Hazelman at Addenbrooke's Hospital.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000The drug dramatically improves the patient's condition.1991-01-01T00:00:00+0000BTG starts negotiations to license Campath to a commercial partner.1993-01-01T00:00:00+0000Coles joins as a doctoral student.1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Roy Calne, Peter Friend and Waldman's team launch a small trial with 31 kidney transplant patients to see if Campath-1H can help in reducing immunosuppressant drugs. 1997-01-01T00:00:00+0000Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.1998-01-01T00:00:00+0000Hodgkin was an English physiologist and biophysicist who helped discover with Andrew F Huxley the chemical processes responsible for the transmission of electrical impulses from one nerve cell in the brain through to other nerve fibers. This they did based on experiments involving the introduction of microelectrodes into the giant nerve fibre of the squid. Hodgkin received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1963 for this work. 1998-12-20T00:00:00+0000Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000This comes about after a meeting between Jeff Bulchalter, chief executive officer of Ilex Oncology and Compston.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Known as CAMMS223, this randomised control trial, which compares Campath-1H with interferon beta-1a, indicates Campath-1H is an effective treatment for MS.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Positive results reported from 1,779 patients.2007-01-01T00:00:00+0000McLaren was a major pioneer in the development of IVF. She was also the key architect behind the Human Embryology and Fertilisation Act (1990) which provided the world’s first legal guidelines for infertility treatment and all human embryo research. Following this Act, McLaren served for 10 years on the Human Fertility and Embryology Authority, established in 1991, and became a critical player in debates about the governance of embryonic stem cells for therapy. She also made history in 1991 by becoming the Royal Society’s first woman officer. 2007-07-07T00:00:00+00002009-01-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1H shown to help lower the amount of immunosuppressant drugs taken by organ transplant patients. 2011-01-01T00:00:00+00002012-01-01T00:00:00+0000Huxley was and English physiologist an biophysicist who helped uncover the mechanism of muscle contraction in 1954 through experiments on the giant axon of the Atlantic Squid. His study of muscle fibres was helped by his development of interference microscopy. Huxley shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1963 for 'discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane'. 2012-05-30T00:00:00+0000Sharon Peacock and Julian Parkhill together with other researchers from the University of Cambridge and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute used whole genome sequencing to trace the spread of an outbreak of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Rosie Hospital's special care baby unit. Prospective sequencing then led them to screen staff and identify the potential source of infection. The researchers reported that the cost of DNA sequencing for the infection was half of the 10,000 pounds spent by the hospital to combat the outbreak of MRSA.2012-06-01T00:00:00+0000Granted by European regulatory authorities.2013-09-17T00:00:00+0000Alemtuzumab was originally developed by Herman Waldmann as a laboratory tool to investigate immune tolerance. It soon became the first humanised monoclonal antibody drug. Initially alemtuzumab proved effective for helping prevent graft-versus host disease in transplant patients. It subsequently went on to be approved as a treatment for leukaemia and then many years later it was shown to be effective against multiple sclerosis. 2013-09-17T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1991Campath-1H begins to be tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)Isaacs, Hazleman, Hale, WaldmannCambridge UniversityCampath
1991Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).Waldmann, Hale, CompstonCambridge UniversityCampath
1991The first MS patient is given Campath-1HWaldmann, hale, CompstonCambridge UniversityCampath
1993The rights to Campath are assigned to the British Technology Group (BTG).WaldmannCambridge UniversityCampath
1994Alasdair Coles joins Compston's teamColesCambridge UniversityCampath
1997Small scale tests launched with Campath-1H for organ transplant patients.Waldmann, Calne, FriendCambridge UniversityCampath
1998Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.Compston, Coles, Waldmann, HaleCambridge UniversityCampath
20 Dec 1998Alan Lloyd Hodgkin diedA HodgkinCambridge UniversityNeuroscience
2002Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.Compston, ColesCambridge UniversityCampath
2002Ilex Oncology agrees to raise funds to sponsor clinical trials for Campath-1H in MS patients.Compston, BuchalterIlex Oncology, Cambridge UniversityCampath
2002 - 2004Phase II trial tests Campath-1H for relapsing-remitting MS.Compston, ColesCambridge University, Ilex OncologyCampath
2007 - 2011Two phase III randomised control trials conducted with Campath-1H in patients with early MSCompston, ColesCambridge University, Ilex Oncology, GenzymeCampath
7 Jul 2007Anne McLaren died McLarenUniversity College London, Edinburgh University, Cambridge UniversityEmbryology, Reproduction, Stem cells
2009Lasker Prize awarded to John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for discoveries in nuclear reprogramming. Yamanaka is also awarded the Gairdner PrizeGurdon, YamanakaCambridge University, Kyoto UniversityStem cells
2011Positive results from trials using Campath-1H for organ transplant patientsWaldmann, CalneCambridge UniversityCampath
2012John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cellsGurdon, YamanakaCambridge University, Kyoto UniversityStem cells
30 May 2012Andrew F Huxley diedHuxleyCambridge University, University College LondonCell, Neuroscience
Jun 2012DNA sequencing helps identify the source of an MRSA outbreak in a neornatal intensive care unitPeacock, ParkhillCambridge University, Wellcome Trust Sanger InstituteDNA Sequencing
Sep 2013Campath-1H gains marketing approval for the treatment of MS.Waldmann, Compston, ColesCambridge UniversityCampath
17 Sep 2013European Commission approved Alemtuzumab (Lemtrada) for MS treatmentCompston, Coles, WaldmannCambridge University, SanofiMonoclonal antibodies, Campath

1991

Campath-1H begins to be tested in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

1991

Herman Waldmann and Alastair Compston begin a collaboration to test Campath-1H for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).

1991

The first MS patient is given Campath-1H

1993

The rights to Campath are assigned to the British Technology Group (BTG).

1994

Alasdair Coles joins Compston's team

1997

Small scale tests launched with Campath-1H for organ transplant patients.

1998

Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.

20 Dec 1998

Alan Lloyd Hodgkin died

2002

Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.

2002

Ilex Oncology agrees to raise funds to sponsor clinical trials for Campath-1H in MS patients.

2002 - 2004

Phase II trial tests Campath-1H for relapsing-remitting MS.

2007 - 2011

Two phase III randomised control trials conducted with Campath-1H in patients with early MS

7 Jul 2007

Anne McLaren died

2009

Lasker Prize awarded to John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for discoveries in nuclear reprogramming. Yamanaka is also awarded the Gairdner Prize

2011

Positive results from trials using Campath-1H for organ transplant patients

2012

John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells

30 May 2012

Andrew F Huxley died

Jun 2012

DNA sequencing helps identify the source of an MRSA outbreak in a neornatal intensive care unit

Sep 2013

Campath-1H gains marketing approval for the treatment of MS.

17 Sep 2013

European Commission approved Alemtuzumab (Lemtrada) for MS treatment