Cambridge University: Timeline of key events

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Coles joins as a doctoral student.1994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Roy Calne, Peter Friend and Waldman's team launch a small trial with 31 kidney transplant patients to see if Campath-1H can help in reducing immunosuppressant drugs. 1997-01-01T00:00:00+0000Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.1998-01-01T00:00:00+0000Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000This comes about after a meeting between Jeff Bulchalter, chief executive officer of Ilex Oncology and Compston.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Known as CAMMS223, this randomised control trial, which compares Campath-1H with interferon beta-1a, indicates Campath-1H is an effective treatment for MS.2002-01-01T00:00:00+0000Positive results reported from 1,779 patients.2007-01-01T00:00:00+00002009-01-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1H shown to help lower the amount of immunosuppressant drugs taken by organ transplant patients. 2011-01-01T00:00:00+00002012-01-01T00:00:00+0000Huxley was and English physiologist an biophysicist who helped uncover the mechanism of muscle contraction in 1954 through experiments on the giant axon of the Atlantic Squid. His study of muscle fibres was helped by his development of interference microscopy. Huxley shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1963 for 'discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane'. 2012-05-30T00:00:00+0000Sharon Peacock and Julian Parkhill together with other researchers from the University of Cambridge and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute used whole genome sequencing to trace the spread of an outbreak of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Rosie Hospital's special care baby unit. Prospective sequencing then led them to screen staff and identify the potential source of infection. The researchers reported that the cost of DNA sequencing for the infection was half of the 10,000 pounds spent by the hospital to combat the outbreak of MRSA.2012-06-01T00:00:00+0000Granted by European regulatory authorities.2013-09-17T00:00:00+0000Alemtuzumab was originally developed by Herman Waldmann as a laboratory tool to investigate immune tolerance. It soon became the first humanised monoclonal antibody drug. Initially alemtuzumab proved effective for helping prevent graft-versus host disease in transplant patients. It subsequently went on to be approved as a treatment for leukaemia and then many years later it was shown to be effective against multiple sclerosis. 2013-09-17T00:00:00+0000The first to determine the DNA sequence of insulin, Sanger proved proteins have a defined chemical composition. He was also pivotal to the development of the dideoxy chain-termination method for sequencing DNA molecules, known as the Sanger method. This provided a breakthrough in the sequencing of long stretches of DNA in terms of speed and accuracy and laid the foundation for the Human Genome Project.2013-11-19T00:00:00+0000S. Ellys Harrison, B. Sozen, N. Christodoulou, C. Kyprianou, M. Zernicka-Goetz, 'Assembly of embryonic and extra-embryonic stem cells to mimic embryogenesis in vitro', Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aal1810 2017-03-03T00:00:00+0000UK scientists modified 41 embryos shortly after fertilisation. N.M.E. Fogarty et al, 'Genome editing reveals a role for OCT4 in human embryogenesis', Nature, doi:10.1038/nature240332017-09-20T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1994Alasdair Coles joins Compston's teamColesCambridge UniversityCampath
1997Small scale tests launched with Campath-1H for organ transplant patients.Waldmann, Calne, FriendCambridge UniversityCampath
1998Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.Compston, Coles, Waldmann, HaleCambridge UniversityCampath
2002Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.Compston, ColesCambridge UniversityCampath
2002Ilex Oncology agrees to raise funds to sponsor clinical trials for Campath-1H in MS patients.Compston, BuchalterIlex Oncology, Cambridge UniversityCampath
2002 - 2004Phase II trial tests Campath-1H for relapsing-remitting MS.Compston, ColesCambridge University, Ilex OncologyCampath
2007 - 2011Two phase III randomised control trials conducted with Campath-1H in patients with early MSCompston, ColesCambridge University, Ilex Oncology, GenzymeCampath
2009Lasker Prize awarded to John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for discoveries in nuclear reprogramming. Yamanaka is also awarded the Gairdner PrizeGurdon, YamanakaCambridge University, Kyoto UniversityStem cells
2011Positive results from trials using Campath-1H for organ transplant patientsWaldmann, CalneCambridge UniversityCampath
2012John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cellsGurdon, YamanakaCambridge University, Kyoto UniversityStem cells
30 May 2012Andrew F Huxley diedHuxleyCambridge University, University College LondonCell, Neuroscience
Jun 2012DNA sequencing helps identify the source of an MRSA outbreak in a neornatal intensive care unitPeacock, ParkhillCambridge University, Wellcome Trust Sanger InstituteDNA Sequencing
Sep 2013Campath-1H gains marketing approval for the treatment of MS.Waldmann, Compston, ColesCambridge UniversityCampath
17 Sep 2013European Commission approved Alemtuzumab (Lemtrada) for MS treatmentCompston, Coles, WaldmannCambridge University, SanofiMonoclonal antibodies, Campath
19 Nov 2013Sanger, the inventor of DNA sequencing, died at the age of 95SangerCambridgeDNA Sequencing
3 Mar 2017Cambridge scientists report the development of an aritificial mouse embryo using stem cells University of CambridgeStem cells, Reproduction
Sep 2017DNA of human embryos edited using CRISPR-Cas9 to study cause of infertilityFogarty, McCarthy, Snijders, Powell, Kubikova, Blakeley, Lea, Elder, Wamaitha, Kim, Maciulyte, Kleinjung, Kim, Wells, Vallier, Bertero, Turner, NiakanFrancis Crick Instiitute, Cambridge University, Oxford University, Seoul National UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing, Reproduction

1994

Alasdair Coles joins Compston's team

1997

Small scale tests launched with Campath-1H for organ transplant patients.

1998

Analysis of 29 MS patients given MS indicate Campath-1H might be more effective if given earlier in the course of the disease.

2002

Results from 58 MS patients indicate Campath-1H more effective in those who are less advanced in their disease.

2002

Ilex Oncology agrees to raise funds to sponsor clinical trials for Campath-1H in MS patients.

2002 - 2004

Phase II trial tests Campath-1H for relapsing-remitting MS.

2007 - 2011

Two phase III randomised control trials conducted with Campath-1H in patients with early MS

2009

Lasker Prize awarded to John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for discoveries in nuclear reprogramming. Yamanaka is also awarded the Gairdner Prize

2011

Positive results from trials using Campath-1H for organ transplant patients

2012

John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells

30 May 2012

Andrew F Huxley died

Jun 2012

DNA sequencing helps identify the source of an MRSA outbreak in a neornatal intensive care unit

Sep 2013

Campath-1H gains marketing approval for the treatment of MS.

17 Sep 2013

European Commission approved Alemtuzumab (Lemtrada) for MS treatment

19 Nov 2013

Sanger, the inventor of DNA sequencing, died at the age of 95

3 Mar 2017

Cambridge scientists report the development of an aritificial mouse embryo using stem cells

Sep 2017

DNA of human embryos edited using CRISPR-Cas9 to study cause of infertility