Harvard University: Timeline of key events

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Goodpasture developed a method of culturing viruses in chicken embryos and fertilized chicken eggs. Before this viruses were grown in living tissues which could be contaminated by bacteria. Goodpasture's method laid the foundation for the development of vaccines for smallpox, yellow fever, typhus and chicken pox.1886-10-17T00:00:00+0000Fieser synthesised the first viamin K, an important blood-clotting agent, and also invemnted the military agent napalm. 1899-04-07T00:00:00+0000Julian was a pioneer of pharmacological synthesis. He was the first African-American granted a doctoral degree in chemistry and the first to be inducted into the National Academy of Sciences. 1899-04-11T00:00:00+0000Bloch shared the 1964 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism.'1912-01-21T00:00:00+0000Woodward won the 1965 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for opening up the field of artificial synthesis. He synthesised the first organic compounds like quinine, cholesterol, cortisone, strychnine, and chlorophyll. 1917-04-10T00:00:00+0000Benacerraf shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1980 for 'discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulates immunological reactions'.1920-10-29T00:00:00+0000Lloyd Felton, a scientist, develops a precipitation technique for the isolation of pure antibodies as part of an effort to develop a therapy for pneumonia. 1926-01-01T00:00:00+0000Gilbert shared the 1980 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work in determining base sequences in nucleic acids.1932-03-21T00:00:00+0000Albert Coons, an American physician and immunologist, develops the immunofluorescence technique using antibodies coupled with fluorophore. This allowed for microscopic visualisation of antibodies helping to launch the clinical disciplines of diagnostic immunofluorescence microscopy for bacteriology and immunology, immunocytology, and immunohistochemistry in anatomic pathology.1941-01-01T00:00:00+0000Szotak helped discover how chromosomes are protected by telomeres, a section of DNA at the end of a chromosome. 1952-11-09T00:00:00+0000Performed on identical twins by Joseph E Murray together with J Hartwell Harrison and other colleagues. 1954-12-01T00:00:00+0000Goodpasture developed a method of culturing viruses in chicken embryos and fertilized chicken eggs. Before this viruses were grown in living tissues which could be contaminated by bacteria. Goodpasture's method laid the foundation for the development of vaccines for smallpox, yellow fever, typhus and chicken pox.1960-09-20T00:00:00+0000This is achieved by Walter Gilbert and Allan Maxam at Harvard University using a method known as wandering-spot analysis.1973-01-01T00:00:00+0000A.D. Riggs, 'X inactivation, differentiation, and DNA methylation', Cytogenet Cell Genet, 14 (1975), 9–25; R. Sager, R. Kitchin, 'Selective silencing of eukaryotic DNA', Science, 189/4201 (1975), 426-33. 1975-01-01T00:00:00+0000Julian helped pioneer pharmacological synthesis. He was the first African-American granted a doctoral degree in chemistry and the first to be inducted into the National Academy of Sciences. 1975-04-19T00:00:00+0000Two separate teams, one led by Fred Sanger at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK, and one composed of Allan Maxam, and Walter Gilbert at Harvard University publish two different methods for sequencing DNA. The first, known as the Sanger Method, or dideoxy sequencing, involves the breaking down and then building up of DNA sequences. The second, the Maxam-Gilbert method, involves the partial chemical modification of nucleotides in DNA. 1977-02-01T00:00:00+0000Fieser synthesised the first viamin K, an important blood-clotting agent, and also invemnted the military agent napalm. 1977-07-25T00:00:00+0000Woodward won the 1965 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for opening up the field of artificial synthesis. He synthesised the first organic compounds like quinine, cholesterol, cortisone, strychnine, and chlorophyll.1979-07-08T00:00:00+0000Prize shared with Walter Gilbert. Awarded on the basis of their 'contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids.' 1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000Orr-Weaver, T L, Szostak, J W, Rothstein, R J, 'Yeast transformation: A model system for the study of recombination', PNAS, 78/10 (1981), 6353-8.1981-10-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
17 Oct 1886Ernest Goodpasture was born Clarksville, TN, USAGoodpastureHarvard UniversityVirology, Vaccine
7 Apr 1899Louis F Fieser was born in Columbus, Ohio, USAFieserHarvard University 
11 Apr 1899Percy Lavon Julian was born in Montgomery, Alabama, USAJulianHarvard UniversityPharmacology
21 Jan 1912Konrad Bloch was born in Neisse (now Nysa), Germany (now Poland)BlochHarvard UniversityBiochemistry
Apr 1917Robert Burns Woodward was born in Boston MA, USAWoodwardHarvard UniversityPharmacology
29 Oct 1920Baruj Benacerraf was born in Caracas, VenezuelaBenacerrafHarvard Medical SchoolImmunology
1926First pure antibody preparation madeFeltonHarvard UniversityAntibodies
21 Mar 1932Walter Gilbert was born in Boston MA, USAGilbertHarvard UniversityBiochemistry
1941Immunofluorescence technique introducedCoonsHarvard UniversityAntibodies
9 Nov 1952Jack Szostak was born in London, United KingdomSzotakHarvard UniversityGenetics
Dec 1954First successful human kidney transplantBrigham Hospital, Harvard UniversityTranplantation
20 Sep 1960Ernest Goodpasture diedGoodpastureHarvard UniversityVirology, Vaccine
1973The sequencing of 24 basepairs is reportedGilbert, MaxamHarvard UniversityDNA Sequencing
1975DNA methylation suggested as mechanism behind X-chomosome silencing in embryosRiggs, Sager, KitchenCity of Hope National Medical Center, Harvard UniversityDNA methylation, Epigenetics, Embryology
19 Apr 1975Percy Lavon Julian diedJulianHarvard UniversityPharmacology
Feb 1977Two different DNA sequencing methods published that allow for the rapid sequencing of long stretches of DNASanger, Maxam, GilbertHarvard University, Laboratory of Molecular BiologyDNA Sequencing
25 Jul 1977Louis F Fieser diedFieserHarvard University 
Jul 1979Robert Burns Woodward diedWoodwardHarvard UniversityPharmacology
1980Sanger awarded his second Nobel Prize in ChemistrySanger, GilbertHarvard University, Laboratory of Molecular BiologyDNA Sequencing
Oct 1981Double-stranded DNA break technique developed for genetically modifying yeast Orr-Weaver, Szostak, RothsteinHarvard University, New Jersey Medical SchoolGene editing

17 Oct 1886

Ernest Goodpasture was born Clarksville, TN, USA

7 Apr 1899

Louis F Fieser was born in Columbus, Ohio, USA

11 Apr 1899

Percy Lavon Julian was born in Montgomery, Alabama, USA

21 Jan 1912

Konrad Bloch was born in Neisse (now Nysa), Germany (now Poland)

21 Jan 1912

Robert Burns Woodward was born in Boston MA, USA

29 Oct 1920

Baruj Benacerraf was born in Caracas, Venezuela

1926

First pure antibody preparation made

21 Mar 1932

Walter Gilbert was born in Boston MA, USA

1941

Immunofluorescence technique introduced

9 Nov 1952

Jack Szostak was born in London, United Kingdom

Dec 1954

First successful human kidney transplant

20 Sep 1960

Ernest Goodpasture died

1973

The sequencing of 24 basepairs is reported

1975

DNA methylation suggested as mechanism behind X-chomosome silencing in embryos

19 Apr 1975

Percy Lavon Julian died

Feb 1977

Two different DNA sequencing methods published that allow for the rapid sequencing of long stretches of DNA

25 Jul 1977

Louis F Fieser died

25 Jul 1977

Robert Burns Woodward died

1980

Sanger awarded his second Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Oct 1981

Double-stranded DNA break technique developed for genetically modifying yeast