Rockefeller University: Timeline of key events

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Loeb was a physiologist who demonstrated the possibility of reproduction without male fertilisation, parthenogenesis, in sea urchin eggs. 1859-04-07T00:00:00+0000Carrel was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize for Medicine in recognition of 'his work on vascular structure and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs'.1873-06-28T00:00:00+0000Avery was a Canadian-American physician who helped discover the genetic information in genes and chromosomes is made up of DNA.1877-10-21T00:00:00+0000An American pathologist, Rous was the first to show how viruses could cause cancer. This was based on his work with tumours in chickens. 1879-10-05T00:00:00+0000Gasser shared the 1944 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering different fibers in nerves that conduct electrochemical pulses at different rates. This laid the foundation for the theory that one type of fiber conducts pain signals and others conduct motor control signals. 1888-07-05T00:00:00+0000Wyckoff pioneered x-ray crystallography of bacteria.1897-08-09T00:00:00+0000Stanley shared the 1946 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the 'preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.'1904-08-16T00:00:00+0000Chase discovered that white blood cells trigger the immune response in the body confronting a foreign invader. He laid the foundation for the discovery of lymphocyte cells and B and T cells.1905-09-17T00:00:00+0000Tatum shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the 'discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events.'1909-12-14T00:00:00+0000Phoebus Levene, a Russian-American biochemist, describes the building blocks of DNA, including four types of bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T) .1910-01-01T00:00:00+0000The research was carried out by Peyton Rous. The idea that a virus could cause cancer was greeted with scepticism in the scientific community.1911-01-01T00:00:00+0000Stein shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for contributing to understanding the 'connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule.'1911-06-25T00:00:00+0000Palade helped determine cell function and organization. He and colleagues demonstrated that all plant cells and some animal and bacteria cells have a vacuole, an enclosed compartment in the cell membrane, which contains enzymes essential to maintaining the cell's health.1912-11-19T00:00:00+0000A biochemist, Moore shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for contributions to the 'understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule.'1913-09-04T00:00:00+0000 JB Murphy, 'Studies on tissue specificity', Journal of Experimental Medicine, 19 (1914), 181-86.1914-01-01T00:00:00+0000The experiments involved increasing the number of lymphocytes in the blood of mice by treating them with low doses of X-rays. JB Murphy, JJ Morton, 'The effects of X-rays on the resistance to cancer in mice', Science, 42 (1915), 842. 1915-01-01T00:00:00+0000The trials were carried out by James B Murphy and colleagues at the Rockefeller Institute. 1916-01-01T00:00:00+0000de Duve helped determine the structure and function of parts of the cell. 1917-10-02T00:00:00+0000Sager discovered the transmission of genetic traits through chloroplast DNA. This was the first example of genetics not involving the cell nucleus. 1918-02-07T00:00:00+0000Loeb was a German-American physiologist who demonstrated the possibility of reproduction without male fertilisation, parthenogenesis, in sea urchin eggs. 1924-02-11T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
7 Apr 1859Jacques Loeb was born in Mayen, Germany LoebRockefeller UniversityReproduction
28 Jun 1873Alexis Carrel was born in Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, FranceCarrelRockefeller UniversityTransplantation
21 Oct 1877 Oswald Theodore Avery was born in Halifax, CanadaAveryRockefeller UniversityDNA
5 Oct 1879Peyton Rous was born in Baltimore MD, USARousRockefeller UniversityVirology, Oncology
5 Jul 1888Herbert Spencer Gasser was born in Platteville WI, USAGasserRockefeller Institute 
9 Aug 1897Ralph W G Wyckoff was born in Geneva, NY, USAWyckoffRockefeller UniversityBacteriology, Virology
16 Aug 1904Wendell M Stanley was born in Ridgeville IN, USAStanleyRockefeller UniversityBiochemistry
17 Sep 1905Merrill W Chase born in Providence, RI, USAChaseRockefeller UniversityAntibodies
14 Dec 1909Edward Lawrie Tatum was born in Boulder CO, USATatumRockefeller UniversityGenetics
1910First description of the building blocks of DNALeveneRockefeller UniversityDNA
1911Research provided the first evidence that virus transmits cancer in chickensRousRockefeller InstituteImmunology, Oncology, Virology
25 Jun 1911William H Stein was born in New York NY, USASteinRockefeller UniversityRNA
19 Nov 1912George E Palade was born in Iasi, RomaniaPaladeRockefeller UniversityCell
4 Sep 1913Stanford Moore was born in Chicago IL, USAMooreRockefeller UniversityBiochemistry
1914Experiments by James B Murphy demonstrate that lymphocytes help animals reject grafted tumoursMurphyRockefeller IntituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
1915 James B Murphy puts forward hypothesis that the nonspecific stimulation of lymphocytes could provide a cure for cancer based on experiments he and John J Morton carried out on miceMurphy, MortonRockefeller InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
1916 - 1922Disappointing results reported from clinical trials treating breast cancer patients with low doses of X-ray radiation following tumour removal, discrediting the theory that stimulation of lymphocytes could help cure cancer. MurphyRockefeller InstituteImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology
2 Oct 1917Christian R de Duve was born in Thames Ditton, United Kingdomde DuveRockefeller UniversityCell
7 Feb 1918Ruth Sager was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USASagerRockefeller UniversityGenetics
11 Feb 1924Jacques Loeb diedLoebRockefeller UniversityReproduction

7 Apr 1859

Jacques Loeb was born in Mayen, Germany

28 Jun 1873

Alexis Carrel was born in Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

21 Oct 1877

Oswald Theodore Avery was born in Halifax, Canada

5 Oct 1879

Peyton Rous was born in Baltimore MD, USA

5 Jul 1888

Herbert Spencer Gasser was born in Platteville WI, USA

9 Aug 1897

Ralph W G Wyckoff was born in Geneva, NY, USA

16 Aug 1904

Wendell M Stanley was born in Ridgeville IN, USA

17 Sep 1905

Merrill W Chase born in Providence, RI, USA

14 Dec 1909

Edward Lawrie Tatum was born in Boulder CO, USA

1910

First description of the building blocks of DNA

1911

Research provided the first evidence that virus transmits cancer in chickens

25 Jun 1911

William H Stein was born in New York NY, USA

19 Nov 1912

George E Palade was born in Iasi, Romania

4 Sep 1913

Stanford Moore was born in Chicago IL, USA

1914

Experiments by James B Murphy demonstrate that lymphocytes help animals reject grafted tumours

1915

James B Murphy puts forward hypothesis that the nonspecific stimulation of lymphocytes could provide a cure for cancer based on experiments he and John J Morton carried out on mice

1916 - 1922

Disappointing results reported from clinical trials treating breast cancer patients with low doses of X-ray radiation following tumour removal, discrediting the theory that stimulation of lymphocytes could help cure cancer.

2 Oct 1917

Christian R de Duve was born in Thames Ditton, United Kingdom

7 Feb 1918

Ruth Sager was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, USA

11 Feb 1924

Jacques Loeb died