CRISPR-Cas9: Timeline of key events

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2013-03-01T00:00:00+0000T R Sampson, D S Weiss, 'CRISPR-Cas systems: new players in gene regulation and bacterial physiology', Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 4 (2014), 1-8.2013-04-01T00:00:00+00002013-08-01T00:00:00+00002013-08-01T00:00:00+0000Achieved by double-nicking with CRISP-Cas nickase mutant2013-08-01T00:00:00+0000W Feng, Y Dai, L Mou, D Cooper, D Shi, Z Cai, 'The potential of the combination of CRISPR/Cas9 and pluripotent stem cells to provide human organs from chimaeric pigs', International Journal of Molecular Science, 16/3 (2015): 6545-56. Human organs produced in pigs have the potential to make up for the shortfall in human donors. They are also less likely to provoke immune responses in patients and thereby rejection. 2015-03-23T00:00:00+0000One of the scientists calling for the moratorium was Fydor Urnov who had helped develop the first genome editing technology known as zinc-finger nucleases. The scientists were concerned that genetic modifications to human reproductive could pose serious risks to future generations and the therapeutic benefits were tenuous. E Lanphier, F Urnov, S E Haecker, M Werner, J Smolenski, 'Don't edit the human germ line', Nature, 519 (2015): 410-11.2015-03-26T00:00:00+0000NIH issued its ban after researchers in China announced experiments altering the gene in non-viable zygotes. 2015-04-15T00:00:00+00002015-04-22T00:00:00+0000The work was carried out by a team of scientists led by Junjiu Huang at Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China. The team used CRISRPR-Cas to modify a gene responsible for a blood disorder in spare embryos from fertility clinics that could not progress to a live birth. They published their results in P Liang , Y Xu , X Zhang et al, 'CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing in human tripronuclear zygotes', Protein and Cell, 6/5 (2015): 363-72. 2015-05-01T00:00:00+00002015-09-02T00:00:00+0000The group is made up of academic scientists, funders and regulators with an interest in embryo and stem cell research. It calls for the establishment of a roadmap for the management of the use of CRISPR in any human reproductive applications.2015-09-11T00:00:00+0000The group is made up of academic scientists, funders and regulators with an interest in embryo and stem cell research. It calls for the establishment of a roadmap for the management of the use of CRISPR in any human reproductive applications.2015-09-11T00:00:00+00002015-09-15T00:00:00+0000Team of scientists led by Kathy Niakan based at Francis Crick Institute in London sought permission from UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority to use gene editing techniques like CRISPR-Cas on embryos less than 2 weeks old. Research designed to understand why some women lose their babies before term. 2015-09-18T00:00:00+0000Cpf1 is an RNA-guided endonuclease which appears in many bacterial species. It has the advantage that it is a smaller and simpler endonuclease than Cas9 so offers a means to overcome some of the limitations of the CRSIPR/Cas9 gene editing system. B Zetsche, J Gootenberg, O Abudayyeh, I Slaymaker, et al, 'Cpf1 Is a Single RNA-Guided Endonuclease of a Class 2 CRISPR-Cas System', Cell (2015): 1-13.2015-09-25T00:00:00+0000The aim was to to inactivate 62 endogenous retroviruses in the pig embryos. All pigs have these viruses embedded in their genomes. The presence of such viruses, which can transmit diseases like cancer, is a major hurdle to the transplant of pig organs into humans. The gene editing work was carried out by the geneticist George Church of Harvard Medical School. He and his team presented the results to the US National Academy of Sciences. 2015-10-05T00:00:00+0000Statement issued alongside its report 'Updating its Reflection on the Human Genome and Human Rights'. 2015-10-06T00:00:00+0000The technique involved splitting the Cas9 based gene drive system into two physically separate parts. It was published in J E DiCarlo, A Chavez, S L Dietz, K M Esvelt, G M Church, 'Safeguarding CRISPR-Cas9 gene drives in yeast', Nature Biotechnology, doi:10.1038/nbt.3412.2015-11-16T00:00:00+0000The work was published in V M Gantz, N Jasinskiene, O Tatarenkova, A Fazekas, V M Macias, E Bier, A A James, 'Highly efficient Cas9-mediated gene drive for population modification of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi', PNAS Early edition (2015), doi/10.1073/pnas 15210771122015-11-23T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
Mar 2013CRISPR-Cas is used in genome editing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast species used in wine making, baking and brewing  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
1 Apr 2013CRISPR-Cas mediated gene regulation shown to help regulation of endogenous bacterial genesSampson, WeissEmory UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2013CRISPR-Cas used to engineer a rat's genome  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2013CRISPR-Cas used to engineer plant genomes including rice, wheat, Arabidopsis, tobacco and Sorghum  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Aug 2013Improvements made to the specificity of CRISPR-Cas system  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
Mar 2015Scientists suggest CRISPR/Cas9 used with stem cells could provide human organs from transgenic pigsFeng, Dai, Mou, Cooper, Shi, Cai Shenzhen University, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Guangxi UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
26 Mar 2015US scientists call for a voluntary worldwide moratorium on the use of genome editing tools to modify human reproductive cellsLamphier, Urnov CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing, Zinc fingers
15 Apr 2015National Institutes of Health declared it will not fund any use of genome editing technologies in human embryos  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing, Reproduction
22 Apr 2015UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics launched a new working group to look into institutional, national and international policies and provisions relevant to genome editing  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
1 May 2015First report of genes edited in human embryos ignited global ethical debate about gene edting technologyHuang, Liang, Xu, ZhangSun Yat-sen UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
2 Sep 2015Leading UK research councils, including the MRC, declared support for using CRISPR-Cas9 and other genome editing techniques in preclinical research  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
11 Sep 2015Hinxton Group issues a statement indicating that most of the ethical and moral questions raised about CRISPR and gene editing have been debated before  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
11 Sep 2015Hinxton Group issues a statement indicating that most of the ethical and moral questions raised about CRISPR and gene editing have been debated before  CRISPR-Cas9
15 Sep 2015UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics held its first workshop to identify and define ethical questions relating to developments in genome editing research  CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
18 Sep 2015UK scientists sought license to genetically modify human embryos to study the role played by genes in the first few days of human fertilisationNaikanCrick InstituteCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
25 Sep 2015New protein, Cpf1, found, offering means to simplify gene editing. Zhang, Zetsche, Gootenberg, Abudayyeh, SlaymakerBroad Institute, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
5 Oct 2015CRISPR/Cas9 modified 60 genes in pig embryos in first step to create organs suitable for human transplantsChurchHarvard UniversityCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing, Transgenic animals
6 Oct 2015UNESCO’s International Bioethic Committee called for ban on genetic editing of human germline   CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
16 Nov 2015US scientists published a technique for overwriting changes made by CRISPR/Cas 9DiCarlo, Chavez, Dietz, Esvelt, ChurchHarvard University, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich CRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
23 Nov 2015US scientists genetically modified mosquitos using CRISPR/Cas9 to prevent them carrying malaria parasiteGantz, Jasinskiene, Tatarenkova, Fazekas, Macias, Bier, JamesUniversity California San Diego, University of California IrvineCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing

Mar 2013

CRISPR-Cas is used in genome editing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast species used in wine making, baking and brewing

1 Apr 2013

CRISPR-Cas mediated gene regulation shown to help regulation of endogenous bacterial genes

Aug 2013

CRISPR-Cas used to engineer a rat's genome

Aug 2013

CRISPR-Cas used to engineer plant genomes including rice, wheat, Arabidopsis, tobacco and Sorghum

Aug 2013

Improvements made to the specificity of CRISPR-Cas system

Mar 2015

Scientists suggest CRISPR/Cas9 used with stem cells could provide human organs from transgenic pigs

26 Mar 2015

US scientists call for a voluntary worldwide moratorium on the use of genome editing tools to modify human reproductive cells

15 Apr 2015

National Institutes of Health declared it will not fund any use of genome editing technologies in human embryos

22 Apr 2015

UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics launched a new working group to look into institutional, national and international policies and provisions relevant to genome editing

1 May 2015

First report of genes edited in human embryos ignited global ethical debate about gene edting technology

2 Sep 2015

Leading UK research councils, including the MRC, declared support for using CRISPR-Cas9 and other genome editing techniques in preclinical research

11 Sep 2015

Hinxton Group issues a statement indicating that most of the ethical and moral questions raised about CRISPR and gene editing have been debated before

11 Sep 2015

Hinxton Group issues a statement indicating that most of the ethical and moral questions raised about CRISPR and gene editing have been debated before

15 Sep 2015

UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics held its first workshop to identify and define ethical questions relating to developments in genome editing research

18 Sep 2015

UK scientists sought license to genetically modify human embryos to study the role played by genes in the first few days of human fertilisation

25 Sep 2015

New protein, Cpf1, found, offering means to simplify gene editing.

5 Oct 2015

CRISPR/Cas9 modified 60 genes in pig embryos in first step to create organs suitable for human transplants

6 Oct 2015

UNESCO’s International Bioethic Committee called for ban on genetic editing of human germline

16 Nov 2015

US scientists published a technique for overwriting changes made by CRISPR/Cas 9

23 Nov 2015

US scientists genetically modified mosquitos using CRISPR/Cas9 to prevent them carrying malaria parasite