Antibodies: Timeline of key events

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von Behring won the 1901 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his serum treatments against diptheria and tetanus.1854-03-15T00:00:00+0000Ehrlich, a biologist, is most well-known for coining the term 'antibody' and his side-chain theory of antibody formation which transformed understandings of how the immune system worked and laid the foundation for the development of serum therapy and monoclonal antibodies. 1854-03-24T00:00:00+0000Jules Bordet, a Belgian immunologist and microbiologist, on the basis of experiments heating fresh serum containing antibacterial antibodies, detects the presence of a substance, initially called alexin or complement which appears to act as an accessory to antibodies, taking on the role of destroying antigens.1895-01-01T00:00:00+0000Antiserum preparted against human oesteogenic sarcoma in an ass and 2 dogs. Reported successful in treating 50 patients suffering from cancer of the stomach and chest wall. J Hericourt, C Richet, 'Traitement d'un cas de sarcome par la sarcome par la serotherapie', Seances Acad Sci, 120 (1895), 948-50.1895-01-01T00:00:00+0000Paul Ehrlich, a German scientist, proposes that all cells possess a wide variety of special receptors, or side chains, that function like gatekeepers or locks for each cell. This known as Ehrlich's side chain theory.1897-01-01T00:00:00+0000Karl Landsteiner, Austrian scientist, observes a clumping effect when the blood of two people are mixed. On the basis of this he identifies three human blood groups A, B and O, which he labels as C. He also notes that blood transfusion between persons with the same blood group does not result in the destruction of blood cells, but occurs between persons of different blood groups.1900-01-01T00:00:00+0000Karl Landsteiner, devises a test for A, B and O blood groupings using antibodies.1901-01-01T00:00:00+0000Chase discovered that white blood cells trigger the immune response in the body confronting a foreign invader. He laid the foundation for the discovery of lymphocyte cells and B and T cells.1905-09-17T00:00:00+0000Reuben Ottenberg carries out the first successful blood transfusion using blood typing and cross-matching based on the use of antisera. 1907-01-01T00:00:00+0000Paul Ehrlich, German scientist, suggests that one day it will be possible to use antibodies as compounds to target disease.1909-01-01T00:00:00+0000Jerne shared the 1984 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system' and laying the foundation for the production of monoclonal antibodies.1911-12-23T00:00:00+0000Ehrlich, winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1908, is most well-known for coining the term 'antibody' and his side-chain theory of antibody formation which transformed understandings of how the immune system worked and laid the foundation for the development of serum therapy and monoclonal antibodies. 1915-08-20T00:00:00+0000Karl Landsteiner, Austrian-born American biologist and physician, shows the body capable of producing antibodies against synthetic antigens never encountered before.1917-01-01T00:00:00+0000von Behring won the 1901 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his serum treatments against diptheria and tetanus.1917-03-31T00:00:00+0000Porter shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies.'1917-10-08T00:00:00+0000Lloyd Felton, a scientist, develops a precipitation technique for the isolation of pure antibodies as part of an effort to develop a therapy for pneumonia. 1926-01-01T00:00:00+0000E Witebsky, 'Disponibilitiit und Spezifitat alkoholloslicher Strukturen von Organen und bosartigen Geschwulsten', Zeitschrift fur Imrnunitaetsforschung, Allergie und Klinische Immunologie' 62 (1929), 35-73. 1929-01-01T00:00:00+0000Edelman shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies. 1929-07-01T00:00:00+0000Michael Smith shared the 1993 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for a technique that enables researchers to introduce specific mutations into genes and, thus, to the proteins that they encode.1932-04-26T00:00:00+0000John Marrack, a British chemical pathologist, proposes the biochemical forces which underly the bond between antibodies and antigens. 1934-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
15 Mar 1854Emil Adolf von Behring was born in Hansdorf, Prussia (now Poland)von BehringHansdorf, Prussia (now Poland)Antibodies
24 Mar 1854Paul Ehrlich, winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1908 born in Strehlen (now Strzelin), Prussia (now Poland)EhrlichGoettingen UniversityAntibodies, Immunology
1895Complement detected to be an accessory to antibodiesBordetPasteur InstituteAntibodies
1895Humans treated with antiserum prepared against human cancer. This established the principle of using serotherapy to fight cancerHericourt, RichetCollege de FranceImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Monoclonal antibodies
1897Antibody formation theoryEhrlich Antibodies
1900 - 1901Blood grouping observedLandsteinerUniversity of ViennaAntibodies
1901Blood groupings diagnostic developedLandsteinerUniversity of ViennaAntibodies
17 Sep 1905Merrill W Chase born in Providence, RI, USAChaseRockefeller UniversityAntibodies
1907First successful blood transfusionOttenbergMount Sinai HospitalAntibodies
1909Antibodies put forward as potential 'magic bullets' for medicineEhrlichRoyal Institute of Experimental TherapyAntibodies
23 Dec 1911Niels K Jerne was born in London, United KingdomJerneBasel Institute for ImmunologyImmunology, Monoclonal antibodies
20 Aug 1915Paul Ehrlich diedEhrlichGoettingen UniversityAntibodies, Immunology
1917Antibodies shown to form against synthetic antigens (foreign substances)LandsteinerWilhelminenspitalAntibodies
31 Mar 1917Emil Adolf von Behring diedvon Behring Antibodies
8 Oct 1917Rodney R Porter was born in Newton-le-Willows, United KingdomPorterOxford UniversityAntibodies
1926First pure antibody preparation madeFeltonHarvard UniversityAntibodies
1929First molecular marker, antigen, identified on a tumour, laying foundation for use of antibodies to diagnose and treat cancerWitebsky University of HeidelbergImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Monoclonal antibodies
1 Jul 1929Gerald M Edelman was born in New York NY, USAEdelmanRockefeller UniversityAntibodies
26 Apr 1932Michael Smith was born in Blackpool, United KingdomSmithUniversity of British ColumbiaRecombinant DNA, Monoclonal antibodies
1934 - 1938Antigen-antibody binding hypothesis formulatedMarrackLondon UniversityAntibodies

15 Mar 1854

Emil Adolf von Behring was born in Hansdorf, Prussia (now Poland)

24 Mar 1854

Paul Ehrlich, winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1908 born in Strehlen (now Strzelin), Prussia (now Poland)

1895

Complement detected to be an accessory to antibodies

1895

Humans treated with antiserum prepared against human cancer. This established the principle of using serotherapy to fight cancer

1897

Antibody formation theory

1900 - 1901

Blood grouping observed

1901

Blood groupings diagnostic developed

17 Sep 1905

Merrill W Chase born in Providence, RI, USA

1907

First successful blood transfusion

1909

Antibodies put forward as potential 'magic bullets' for medicine

23 Dec 1911

Niels K Jerne was born in London, United Kingdom

20 Aug 1915

Paul Ehrlich died

1917

Antibodies shown to form against synthetic antigens (foreign substances)

31 Mar 1917

Emil Adolf von Behring died

8 Oct 1917

Rodney R Porter was born in Newton-le-Willows, United Kingdom

1926

First pure antibody preparation made

1929

First molecular marker, antigen, identified on a tumour, laying foundation for use of antibodies to diagnose and treat cancer

1 Jul 1929

Gerald M Edelman was born in New York NY, USA

26 Apr 1932

Michael Smith was born in Blackpool, United Kingdom

1934 - 1938

Antigen-antibody binding hypothesis formulated