Genetics: Timeline of key events

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Kornberg shared the 1959 Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of the 'mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.'1918-03-03T00:00:00+0000Lewis shared the 1995 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development.1918-05-20T00:00:00+0000Monod shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.'1920-06-07T00:00:00+0000Jacob shared the 1965 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.' 1920-06-17T00:00:00+0000Khorana shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.'1922-01-09T00:00:00+0000Holley shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.'1922-01-28T00:00:00+0000Lederberg was a major pioneer of bacterial genetics. She discovered the lambda phage and invented the replica plating technique. 1922-12-18T00:00:00+0000Lederberg shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria.'1925-05-23T00:00:00+0000Smithies shared the 2007 Nobel Prize for Medicine for discovering the principles for 'introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells.'1925-06-23T00:00:00+0000T.B. Johnson, R.D. Coghill, 'The discovery of 5-methyl-cytosine in tuberculinic acid, the nucleic acid of the Tubercle bacillus', Journal of the American Chemical Society, 47/11 (1925, 2838–44. 1925-11-01T00:00:00+0000Brenner shared the 2002 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death.'1927-01-13T00:00:00+0000Nirenberg shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for interpreting the genetic code and its function of protein synthesis.1927-04-10T00:00:00+0000Kossel is best known for having isolated and described the five organic compounds present in nucleic acid which are key to the formation of DNA and RNA. 1927-07-05T00:00:00+0000Watson shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Nobel Prize for Medicine helping to determine the double-helix structure of DNA. 1928-04-06T00:00:00+0000 Zinder discovered how hereditary information is transferred from one organism to another. The process is known as genetic transduction.1928-11-07T00:00:00+0000Founded by Clarence Little, one of the leading researchers into genetic differences governing the rejection of foreign tissues. 1929-01-01T00:00:00+0000Temin shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for Medicine for work on the interactions between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell. 1934-12-10T00:00:00+0000The mice were developed by George Snell. 1940-01-01T00:00:00+0000MK Barrett, 'The influence of genetic constitution upon the induction of resistance to transplantable tumors', Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2 (1940), 387-93.1940-01-01T00:00:00+0000George Beadle and Edward Tatum, American geneticists, demonstrate that genes are responsible for the production of an enzyme. 1941-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
3 Mar 1918Arthur Kornberg was born in Brooklyn NY, USAKornbergStanford UniversityGenetics, DNA, RNA
20 May 1918Edward B Lewis was born in Wilkes-Barre, PA, USALewisCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGenetics, Embryology
7 Jun 1920Jacques Monod was born in Nancy, FranceMonodPasteur InstituteGenetics
17 Jun 1920Francois Jacob was born in Nancy, FranceJacobPasteur InstituteGenetics
9 Jan 1922Har Gobind Khorana was born in Raipur, IndiaKhoranaRaipur, IndiaGenetics
28 Jan 1922Robert W Holley was born in Urbana IL, USAHolleyCornell UniversityGenetics
18 Dec 1922Esther Lederberg was born in Bronx, New York, USALederbergWisconsin UniversityGenetics, Antimicrobial resistance, Bacteriophages, Lambda phage
23 May 1925Joshua Lederberg was born in Montclair, NJ, USALederbergUniversity of WisconsinGenetics, Plasmids
23 Jun 1925Oliver Smithies was born in Halifax, United KingdomSmithesUniversity of North CarolinaGenetics
Nov 1925T.B. Johnson and R.D. Coghill reported detecting a minor amount of methylated cytosine derivative as byproduct of hyrdrolysis of tuberculinic acid with sulfuric acid but other scientists struggled to replicate their results. Johnson, CoghillYale UniversityDNA methylation, Epigenetics
13 Jan 1927Sydney Brenner was born in Germiston, South AfricaBrennerLaboratory of Molecular BiologyGenetics
10 Apr 1927Marshall W Nirenberg was born in New York NY, USANirenbergNational Institutes of HealthGenetics
5 Jul 1927Albrecht Kossel diedKosselUniversity of HeidelbergGenetics
6 Apr 1928James D Watson was born in Chicago IL, USAWatsonLaboratory of Molecular BiologyDNA, Genetics
7 Nov 1928Norton David Zinder was born New York City, USAZinderRockefeller UniversityGenetics
1929Jackson Memorial Laboratories established to develop inbred strains of mice to study the genetics of cancer and other diseases Jackson Memorial LaboratoroiesGenetics, Immunology, Oncology, Transgenic animals
10 Dec 1934Howard M Temin was born in Philadelphia PA, USATeminUniversity of WisconsinGenetics, Virology, Oncology
1940The first cogenic line of inbred mouse strains were developed, which helped determine the major histocompatibility complex, a set of genes that code for proteins found on the surfaces of cells which help the immune system recognise foreign substances. SnellJackson LaboratoryGenetics, Immunology
1940Inbred strains of mice bred at Jackson Memorial Laboratory showed that resistance to transplanted tumours were due to body's resistance to genetically different tissueBarrettJackson Memorial LaboratoroiesGenetics, Immunology, Oncology
1941Genes shown to regulate biochemical events within cellsBeadle, TatumStanford University Medical SchoolGenetics

3 Mar 1918

Arthur Kornberg was born in Brooklyn NY, USA

20 May 1918

Edward B Lewis was born in Wilkes-Barre, PA, USA

7 Jun 1920

Jacques Monod was born in Nancy, France

17 Jun 1920

Francois Jacob was born in Nancy, France

9 Jan 1922

Har Gobind Khorana was born in Raipur, India

28 Jan 1922

Robert W Holley was born in Urbana IL, USA

18 Dec 1922

Esther Lederberg was born in Bronx, New York, USA

23 May 1925

Joshua Lederberg was born in Montclair, NJ, USA

23 Jun 1925

Oliver Smithies was born in Halifax, United Kingdom

Nov 1925

T.B. Johnson and R.D. Coghill reported detecting a minor amount of methylated cytosine derivative as byproduct of hyrdrolysis of tuberculinic acid with sulfuric acid but other scientists struggled to replicate their results.

13 Jan 1927

Sydney Brenner was born in Germiston, South Africa

10 Apr 1927

Marshall W Nirenberg was born in New York NY, USA

5 Jul 1927

Albrecht Kossel died

6 Apr 1928

James D Watson was born in Chicago IL, USA

7 Nov 1928

Norton David Zinder was born New York City, USA

1929

Jackson Memorial Laboratories established to develop inbred strains of mice to study the genetics of cancer and other diseases

10 Dec 1934

Howard M Temin was born in Philadelphia PA, USA

1940

The first cogenic line of inbred mouse strains were developed, which helped determine the major histocompatibility complex, a set of genes that code for proteins found on the surfaces of cells which help the immune system recognise foreign substances.

1940

Inbred strains of mice bred at Jackson Memorial Laboratory showed that resistance to transplanted tumours were due to body's resistance to genetically different tissue

1941

Genes shown to regulate biochemical events within cells