Vaccine: Timeline of key events

Mouseover the event title for a more detailed description of the event (if available). To search for particular terms in the description of the event enter the term in the box below 'Event' on the table and press 'enter'. Alternatively use the dropdown lists to filter by Person, Place or Science. Click here to clear the filter.

Created by Leonard Hayflick and Paul S Moorhead.1962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Developed by Samuel Katz and John F Enders, the vaccine would later be incorporated into the MMR, a combination vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was made by Maurice Hilleman using material taken from his daughter, Jeryl Lynn, when she suffered measles. The Jeryl strain of the mumps vaccine is still in use today and used in the MMR vaccine.1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine, RA27/3 had been developed by a team headed by Stanley Plotkin.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000Stanley was an American biochemist and virologist. In 1935 he managed to crystalise the tobacco virus, the causative agent of plant disease. This was a major breakthrough because prior to this no scientists had succeeded in finding out what viruses were. His work laid the foundation for other scientists, using x-ray diffraction, to work out the precise molecular structures and reproduction process of several viruses. During World War II he managed to purify several of the most common influenza viruses and developed a vaccine that was partly effective. In 1946 he shared the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the 'preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.' 1971-06-15T00:00:00+0000Theiler was a South African trained physician who specialised in infectious diseases. He is best known for helping to show that yellow fever is caused by a virus and his development of a safe and effective vaccine against the disease. This work he did in the 1930s while based at the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation. His first vaccine was used by the French government to protect the residents of French territories in Western Africa. The second, an improved version that was launched in Brazil in 1938. Over 400 million doses of this vaccine was given out to people over the next 60 years. Theiler was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1951 for his yellow fever vaccine. 1972-08-11T00:00:00+00001975-01-01T00:00:00+0000AU Bertland, AA Tytell, GP Lampson, E Buynak, 'Method for purifying hepatitis B antigen'm US Patent US4017360A. The patent was granted 12 April 1977.1975-05-14T00:00:00+0000WJ McAleer, EH Wamuth, 'Process for isolating hepatitis b antigen', US Patent 4024243. The patent was granted 17 May 1977.1975-06-16T00:00:00+0000The study carried out in 12 chimpanzees indicated the vaccine would be safe to test in humans, MR Hilleman, EB Buynak, RR Roehm, AA Tytell, AU Bertland, 'Purified and inactivated hepatitis vaccine: Progress Report', American Journal of Medical Sciences, 279/2 (1975), 401-4.1975-09-01T00:00:00+0000Conducted among 1,083 gay men in New York. Gay men were ten times more likely to get hepatitis B than the normal population. Men injected with the vaccine were found to be 75% less likely to get hepatitis B than those who didn't get the vaccine. The trial was done by Wolf Szmuness at New York Medical Center using the vaccine produced by Hilleman at Merck. 1978-01-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was developed by Alfred Prince in partnership with John Vnek. Together they devised easier and less expensive purification steps than those used by Merck. The new vaccine required a tenth of the dose than Merck's vaccine. All these measures helped reduce the cost of the vaccine, which was 50 cents per dose. This compared with $90 to $100 for 3 doses of the Merck plasma vaccine. The low cost vaccine was licensed to Cheil Division of Samsung, Korea, Wuhan Institute in China and the Ministry of Healthy in Burma. 1978-01-01T00:00:00+0000The patent was filed on the basis of work undertaken by Kenneth Murray. 1978-12-22T00:00:00+0000The work, funded by Biogen, was undertaken as part of a project to develop recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. It was published in CJ Burrell, P Mackay, PJ Greenaway, PH Hofsneider, K Murray, 'Expression in Escheria Coli of hepatitis B virus DNA sequences cloned in plasmid pBR322', Nature, 279/5708 (1979), 43-47. 1979-02-01T00:00:00+0000F Galibert, E Mandart, F Fitoussi, P Tiollais, P Charnay, , 'Nucleotide sequence of the hepatitis B virus genome (subtype ayw) cloned in E. coli. Nature, 281/5733 (1979), 646-50; P. Charnay, C Pourcel, A Louise, A Fritsch, P Tiollais, 'Cloning in Escherichia coli and physical structure of hepatitis B virion DNA', PNAS USA, 76/5 (1979), 2222-26; P Charnay, E Mandart, A Hampe, F Fitoussi, P Tiollais, F Galibert, 'Localization on the viral genome and nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the two major polypeptides of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag)', Nucleic Acids Research, 7/2 (1979), 335-46.1979-05-01T00:00:00+0000The research was funded by Merck with the aim of developing a recombinant vaccine against hepatitis B. It was published in P Valenzuela, P Gray, M Quiroga, J Zaldivar, H M Goodman, WJ Rutter, 'Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the major protein of hepatitis B virus surface antigen', Nature, 280/5725 (1979), 815e819.1979-08-30T00:00:00+0000The patent was based on the work of Kenneth Murray. It was granted in July 1990 as European Patent (UK) No 0182442. 1979-12-21T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was developed by Stanley Plotkin, Hilary Koprowski and Tadeusz Wiktor at the Wistar Institute1980-01-01T00:00:00+00001980-01-01T00:00:00+0000JC Edman, P Gray, P Valenzuela, LB Rall, WJ Rutter, 'Integration of hepatitis B virus sequences and their expression in a human hepatoma cell', Nature, 286/5772 (1980), 535-38.1980-07-31T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1962WI-38 cell line developed - important to development of vaccinesHayflick, MoorheadWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
1963 - 1963Development of first attentuated measles virus vaccineEnders, Katz Vaccine, Virology
1963Creation of first vaccine against mumpsHillemanMerck & CoVaccines, Virology
1969 - 1970First license approved in US and Europe for vaccine against rubella (German measles)PlotkinWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
15 Jun 1971Wendell M Stanley diedStanleyRockefeller InstituteBiochemistry, Virology, Vaccine
11 Aug 1972Max Theiler diedTheiler Vaccine
1975Pasteur Institute scientists started to develop fractionation method to purify HBsAg from plasma to produce hepatitis B vaccineTiollaisPasteur InstituteVaccine
14 May 1975Merck filed US patent for technique to purify hepatitis B antigenBertland, Tytell, Lampson, BuynakMerckVaccine
16 Jun 1975Merck filed US patent for process to isolate hepatitis B antigenMcAleer, WasmuthMerckVaccine
Sep 1975Merck reported positive results from chimpanzee trials with hepatitis B vaccine containing inactivated HBsAg antigenHilleman, Buynak, Roehm, Tytell, BertlandMerckVaccine
1978 - 1980First clinical trials with plasma vaccine against hepatitis BSzmuness, HillemanNew York Medical CenterVaccine
1978 - 1986Low-cost plasma hepatitis B vaccine developedPrince, VnekNew York Blood CenterVaccine
Dec 1978Biogen filed preliminary UK patent for technique to clone hepatitis B DNA and antigensKenneth MurrayBiogen, University of EdinburghRecombinant DNA, Vaccine
Feb 1979University of Edinburgh scientists published the successful isolation and cloning DNA fragments of the hepatitis B virus in Escherichia coliBurrell, Mackay, Greenaway, Hofschneider, K MurrayUniversity of Edinburgh, Microbiological Research Establishment, BiogenRecombinant DNA, Vaccine
May 1979 - Oct 1979Pasteur Institute scientists reported successful cloning of hepatitis B DNA in Escherichia coliGalibert, Mandart, Fitoussi, Tiollais, Charnay, HampePasteur InstituteRecombinant DNA, Vaccine
30 Aug 1979UCSF scientists announced the successful cloning and expression of HBsAg in Escherichia coliValenzuela, Gray, Quiroga, Zaldivar, Goodman, RutterUniversity of California San Francisco, MerckRecombinant DNA, Vaccine
21 Dec 1979Biogen applied for European patent to clone fragment of DNA displaying hepatitis B antigen specificityMurrayBiogenRecombinant DNA, Vaccine
1980US licensed first rabies vaccine for human useKoprowski, Plotkin, WiktorWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
1980Pasteur Institute filed for US patent for fractionation method to purify HBsAg from plasma to produce hepatitis B vaccineTiollaisPasteur InstituteVaccine
31 Jul 1980UCSF scientists published method to culture HBsAg antigens in cancer cellsEdman, Gray, Valenzuela, Rall, RutterUniversity of California San FranciscoVaccine, Recombinant DNA

1962

WI-38 cell line developed - important to development of vaccines

1963 - 1963

Development of first attentuated measles virus vaccine

1963

Creation of first vaccine against mumps

1969 - 1970

First license approved in US and Europe for vaccine against rubella (German measles)

15 Jun 1971

Wendell M Stanley died

11 Aug 1972

Max Theiler died

1975

Pasteur Institute scientists started to develop fractionation method to purify HBsAg from plasma to produce hepatitis B vaccine

14 May 1975

Merck filed US patent for technique to purify hepatitis B antigen

16 Jun 1975

Merck filed US patent for process to isolate hepatitis B antigen

Sep 1975

Merck reported positive results from chimpanzee trials with hepatitis B vaccine containing inactivated HBsAg antigen

1978 - 1980

First clinical trials with plasma vaccine against hepatitis B

1978 - 1986

Low-cost plasma hepatitis B vaccine developed

Dec 1978

Biogen filed preliminary UK patent for technique to clone hepatitis B DNA and antigens

Feb 1979

University of Edinburgh scientists published the successful isolation and cloning DNA fragments of the hepatitis B virus in Escherichia coli

May 1979 - Oct 1979

Pasteur Institute scientists reported successful cloning of hepatitis B DNA in Escherichia coli

30 Aug 1979

UCSF scientists announced the successful cloning and expression of HBsAg in Escherichia coli

21 Dec 1979

Biogen applied for European patent to clone fragment of DNA displaying hepatitis B antigen specificity

1980

US licensed first rabies vaccine for human use

1980

Pasteur Institute filed for US patent for fractionation method to purify HBsAg from plasma to produce hepatitis B vaccine

31 Jul 1980

UCSF scientists published method to culture HBsAg antigens in cancer cells