Vaccine: Timeline of key events

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The trial was done with 37 healthy adult volunteers. The vaccine was made using HBsAg cloned in yeast. EM Scolnick, AA McLean, DJ West, WJ McAleer WJ Miller, EB Buynak, 'Clinical evaluation in healthy adults of a hepatitis B vaccine made by recombinant DNA', JAMA 251/21 (1984), 2812-15. 1984-06-01T00:00:00+00001984-07-01T00:00:00+0000An American microbiologist, Enders shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for helping to develop a technique to grow the poliomyeltitis virus in various types of tissue culture. This he achieved with colleagues Thomas Weller and Fredric Robbins in 1949. Their technique paved the way for Jonas Salk's development of a vaccine against polio. Enders is also renowned for having helped pioneer the first measles vaccine. 1985-09-08T00:00:00+0000The vaccine, Hepatabox, was developed by Green Cross using Prince and Vnek's technique. 1986-01-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was first approved in West Germany, in May, and then in the US in July. The vaccine was regarded as a breakthrough because it was made from a genetically engineered sub-particle of the virus. This made it much safer than the original vaccine which used the virus sub-particle sourced from the blood of hepatitis B sufferers. The vaccine heralded a new era for the production of vaccines and is a major weapon against one of the most infectious diseases. 1986-05-01T00:00:00+0000HepataxinB was developed by Cheil Sugar using the technique licensed from Alfred Prince and John Vnek.1986-11-01T00:00:00+00001986-12-01T00:00:00+0000The technology was developed at Merck's plant in Montgomery County, Philadelphia. The deal was initiated by Roy Vagelos, Merck's CEO. The aim was to help China deal with its major hepatitis B problem.1989-01-01T00:00:00+00001989-01-01T00:00:00+00001989-05-01T00:00:00+00001990-01-01T00:00:00+00001993-01-01T00:00:00+00001994-01-01T00:00:00+00001994-01-01T00:00:00+0000Wyckoff was a major pioneer of x-ray crystallography of bacteria. He helped develop a high-speed centrifuge for segregating microscopic and submicroscopic material to determine the sizes and molecular weights of small particles. In addition he purified the virus that causes equine encephalomyelitis which laid the foundation for the development of a vaccine to combat an epidemic of the disease in horses. His work in this field enabled him to create a vaccine against epidemic typhus for use in World War II.1994-11-03T00:00:00+0000Developed by William Wunner at the Wistar Institute1995-01-01T00:00:00+0000A medical researcher and virologist, Salk pioneered the first safe and effective polio vaccine. Introduced in 1955, Salk's vaccine helped curb one of the most frightening public health diseases in the world. Over 1,800,000 school children took part in the trial to test his vaccine. His vaccine used killed vaccine rather than weakened forms of the strain of polio used by Sabin to develop another vaccine against the disease. Salk refused to patent his vaccine and made his technique as widely available as possible. His polio vaccine is now on the World Health Organisation's List of Essential Medicine. 1995-06-23T00:00:00+0000Sterne pioneered a vaccine against anthrax in 1935 which effectively wiped out the disease. He used Pasteur's methods to develop the vaccine while based at Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, north of Pretoria, in South Africa. His method remains the mainstay for the production of anthrax vaccines for livestock today. In addition to the vaccine he developed bacterial culture methods for both anthrax and botulism and his work laid the foundation for a number of highly successful veterinary and animal vaccines. 1997-02-26T00:00:00+00001999-01-01T00:00:00+00002001-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
1 Jun 1984Genetically engineered vaccine against hepatitis B reported to have positive trial resultsScolnick, McLean, West, McAleer , Miller, BuynakScolnick, McLean, West, McAleer , Miller, BuynakMerck, University California San FranciscoRecombinant DNA, Vaccine
Jul 1984Taiwan launched nationwide hepatitis B vaccination programme  Vaccine
8 Sep 1985John F Enders diedEndersChildren's Hospital BostonVirology, Vaccine
1986Low-cost plasma vaccine against hepatitis B approved in Indonesia  Vaccine
1986First genetically engineered vaccine against hepatitis B approvedScolnickMerckRecombinant DNA, Vaccine
Nov 1986Low-cost plasma hepatitis B vaccine gained approval in South KoreaPrince, VnekCheil SugarVaccine
Dec 1986Genetically engineered hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix-B, approved in Belgium SmithKline BiologicalsVaccine, Recombinant DNA
1989Merck sold hepatitis B vaccination manufacturing technology to Chinese government for $7millionVagelosMerckVaccine
Jan 1989Genetically engineered hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix-B, approved in US SmithKline BiologicalsVaccine, Recombinant DNA
May 1989Genetically engineered hepatitis B vaccine, GenHevac, approved in France Pasteur VaccinsVaccine, Recombinant DNA
1990Hepatitis B vaccine cost US$3 per dose  Vaccine
1993Hepatitis B vaccination manufacturing plant opened in Beijing, aided by Merck MerckVaccine
1994Ten years after rolling out its nationwide hepatitis B vaccination programme Taiwan reported its children's HBsAg carrier rate had reduced from 10% to less than 1%  Vaccine
1994Hepatitis B vaccination manufacturing plant opened in Shenzhen, aided by Merck  Vaccine
3 Nov 1994Ralph W G Wyckoff diedWyckoffUniversity of Michigan, University of ArizonaBacteriology, Virology, Vaccine
1995US licensed first wildlife rabies vaccine Wistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
23 Jun 1995Jonas Salk diedSalkUniversity of PittsburghVirology, Vaccine
26 Feb 1997Max Sterne diedSterneOnderstepoort Veterinary Research InstituteVaccine
1999Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) and the Vaccine Fund (VF) launched programme to support poor countries roll-out hepatitis B vaccination  Vaccine
2001WHO recorded that 126 (66%) of its 191 member states had universal infant or childhood hepatitis B vaccination programmes  Vaccine

1 Jun 1984

Genetically engineered vaccine against hepatitis B reported to have positive trial results

Jul 1984

Taiwan launched nationwide hepatitis B vaccination programme

8 Sep 1985

John F Enders died

1986

Low-cost plasma vaccine against hepatitis B approved in Indonesia

1986

First genetically engineered vaccine against hepatitis B approved

Nov 1986

Low-cost plasma hepatitis B vaccine gained approval in South Korea

Dec 1986

Genetically engineered hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix-B, approved in Belgium

1989

Merck sold hepatitis B vaccination manufacturing technology to Chinese government for $7million

Jan 1989

Genetically engineered hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix-B, approved in US

May 1989

Genetically engineered hepatitis B vaccine, GenHevac, approved in France

1990

Hepatitis B vaccine cost US$3 per dose

1993

Hepatitis B vaccination manufacturing plant opened in Beijing, aided by Merck

1994

Ten years after rolling out its nationwide hepatitis B vaccination programme Taiwan reported its children's HBsAg carrier rate had reduced from 10% to less than 1%

1994

Hepatitis B vaccination manufacturing plant opened in Shenzhen, aided by Merck

3 Nov 1994

Ralph W G Wyckoff died

1995

US licensed first wildlife rabies vaccine

23 Jun 1995

Jonas Salk died

26 Feb 1997

Max Sterne died

1999

Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) and the Vaccine Fund (VF) launched programme to support poor countries roll-out hepatitis B vaccination

2001

WHO recorded that 126 (66%) of its 191 member states had universal infant or childhood hepatitis B vaccination programmes