Virology: Timeline of key events

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d'Herelle was a French Canadian microbiologist who co-discovered bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria.1949-02-22T00:00:00+0000The first polio vaccine, developed by Jonas Salk, was tested on children from Arsenal Elementary School in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. Nearly 2 million children in 44 states were tested. The trial showed the vaccine to be effective. The vaccine radically reduced the number of polio victims around the world.1954-02-23T00:00:00+0000Goodpasture developed a method of culturing viruses in chicken embryos and fertilized chicken eggs. Before this viruses were grown in living tissues which could be contaminated by bacteria. Goodpasture's method laid the foundation for the development of vaccines for smallpox, yellow fever, typhus and chicken pox.1960-09-20T00:00:00+0000Created by Leonard Hayflick and Paul S Moorhead.1962-01-01T00:00:00+0000Developed by Samuel Katz and John F Enders, the vaccine would later be incorporated into the MMR, a combination vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was made by Maurice Hilleman using material taken from his daughter, Jeryl Lynn, when she suffered measles. The Jeryl strain of the mumps vaccine is still in use today and used in the MMR vaccine.1963-01-01T00:00:00+0000LJ Old, EA Boyse, E Oettgen, ED Harven, ED Geering, B Williamson, P Clifford, 'Precipitating antibody in human serum to an antigen present in cultured Burkitt's lymphoma cells', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 56 (1966), 1699–1704.1966-12-01T00:00:00+0000The vaccine, RA27/3 had been developed by a team headed by Stanley Plotkin.1969-01-01T00:00:00+0000An American pathologist, Rous was the first to show how viruses could cause cancer. This was based on his work with tumours in chickens. 1972-02-16T00:00:00+0000The vaccine was developed by Stanley Plotkin, Hilary Koprowski and Tadeusz Wiktor at the Wistar Institute1980-01-01T00:00:00+0000Delbruck shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.'1981-03-09T00:00:00+0000Based on investigation of blood drawn from AIDS patients who developed Kaposi sarcoma, a cancer caused by a virus. The research was carried out by Susan Krown and Bijan Safai.1983-01-01T00:00:00+0000M Durst, L Gissmann, H Ikenberg, H zur Hausen, 'A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence in cancer biopsy samples from different geographic regions', Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 80 (1983), 3812-15.1983-06-01T00:00:00+0000An American microbiologistl, Enders shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for helping to develop a technique to grow the poliomyeltitis virus, paving the way to a vaccine against polio. 1985-09-08T00:00:00+0000The approval was given based on results from a clinical trial carried out by Harry Herr and Herbert Oettgen. The BCG vaccine stimulates an immune response that targets both the tuberculosis bacteria and bladder cancer cells. 1990-01-01T00:00:00+0000Luria shared the 1969 Nobel Prize for Medicine for 'discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses.'1991-02-06T00:00:00+0000Howard shared the 1975 Nobel Prize for Medicine for work on the interactions between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell. 1994-02-09T00:00:00+0000A French microbiologist, Lwoff is best known for discovering genetic control enzymes and virus synthesis. He showed that bacteria can pass viruses on to subsequent bacterial generations following initial infection. Lwoff also discovered that vitamins help promote growth in microbes and can serve as co-enzymes. 1994-09-30T00:00:00+0000Wyckoff pioneered x-ray crystallography of bacteria.1994-11-03T00:00:00+0000Developed by William Wunner at the Wistar Institute1995-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
22 Feb 1949Felix d'Herelle diedd'HerellePasteur InstituteBacteriology, Virology
23 Feb 1954Salk polio vaccine trial begunSalkUniversity of PittsburghVirology, Vaccine
20 Sep 1960Ernest Goodpasture diedGoodpastureHarvard UniversityVirology, Vaccine
1962WI-38 cell line developed - important to development of vaccinesHayflick, MoorheadWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
1963 - 1963Development of first attentuated measles virus vaccineEnders, Katz Vaccine, Virology
1963Creation of first vaccine against mumpsHillemanMerck & CoVaccines, Virology
Dec 1966Scientists detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer which suggest the cancer is caused by a virus. Old, Boyse, OettgenMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterCancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Virology
1969 - 1970First license approved in US and Europe for vaccine against rubella (German measles)PlotkinWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
16 Feb 1972Peyton Rous diedRousRockefeller UniversityVirology, Oncology
1980US licensed first rabies vaccine for human useKoprowski, Plotkin, WiktorWistar InstituteVaccine, Virology
9 Mar 1981Max Delbruck diedDelbruckCalifornia Institute of TechnologyGenetics, Virology
1983Link drawn between immune deficiency and cancer  Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterImmunology, Oncology, Virology
Jun 1983Harald Zur Hausen identifies the human papillomavirus as the causative agent of cervical cancerzur HausenUniversity of FreibergOncology, Virology
8 Sep 1985John F Enders diedEndersChildren's Hospital BostonVirology, Vaccine
1990US FDA approved BCG, a bacterial vaccine against tuberculosis, to treat early stage bladder cancer. It was the first FDA approved immunotherapyHerr, OettgenMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterImmunology, Cancer immunotherapy, Oncology, Virology
6 Feb 1991Salvador E Luria diedLuriaMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyGenetics, Virology
9 Feb 1994Howard M Temin diedTeminUniversity of WisconsinGenetics, Virology, Oncology
30 Sep 1994Andre Michel Lwoff diedLwoffPasteur InstituteMicrobiology, Virology
3 Nov 1994Ralph W G Wyckoff diedWyckoffRockefeller UniversityBacteriology, Virology
1995US licensed first wildlife rabies vaccine Wistar InstituteVaccine, Virology

22 Feb 1949

Felix d'Herelle died

23 Feb 1954

Salk polio vaccine trial begun

20 Sep 1960

Ernest Goodpasture died

1962

WI-38 cell line developed - important to development of vaccines

1963 - 1963

Development of first attentuated measles virus vaccine

1963

Creation of first vaccine against mumps

Dec 1966

Scientists detect antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer which suggest the cancer is caused by a virus.

1969 - 1970

First license approved in US and Europe for vaccine against rubella (German measles)

16 Feb 1972

Peyton Rous died

1980

US licensed first rabies vaccine for human use

9 Mar 1981

Max Delbruck died

1983

Link drawn between immune deficiency and cancer

Jun 1983

Harald Zur Hausen identifies the human papillomavirus as the causative agent of cervical cancer

8 Sep 1985

John F Enders died

1990

US FDA approved BCG, a bacterial vaccine against tuberculosis, to treat early stage bladder cancer. It was the first FDA approved immunotherapy

6 Feb 1991

Salvador E Luria died

9 Feb 1994

Howard M Temin died

30 Sep 1994

Andre Michel Lwoff died

3 Nov 1994

Ralph W G Wyckoff died

1995

US licensed first wildlife rabies vaccine