Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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Moscou, M J, Bogdanov, A J, 'A simple cipher governs DNA recognition by TAL effectors', Science, 326 (2009), 1501; Boch, J, Scholze, H, Schornack, Landgraf, A, Hahn, S, 'Breaking the code of DNA binding specificity of TAL-Type III effectors', Science, 326 (2009), 1509-12.2009-12-11T00:00:00+0000Zamecnik was an American scientist who pioneered the in vitro synthesis of proteins and helped determine the way cells generate proteins. Together with Mahlon Hoagland and Mary Stephenson he showed that protein synthesis was activated by adenosine 5?-triphosphate and that ribosomes were the site of protein assembly. He also subsequently helped to discover transfer RNA and is credited with laying the foundation for the development of antisense therapies, a type of gene therapy. 2009-12-27T00:00:00+00002010-01-01T00:00:00+00002010-01-01T00:00:00+00002010-01-01T00:00:00+0000European Medicines Agency refuses market authorisation for Amsterdam Molecular Therapeutics's drug alipogene tiparvovec (Glybera)2010-01-01T00:00:00+0000Patient no longer needs blood transfusions for the blood disorder following insertion of corrected beta-globin gene into stem cells2010-01-01T00:00:00+0000J.N. Kochenderfer,et al, Blood, 116/20 (2010); M. Kalos, et al, Sci Tranl Med, 5 (2013), 95ra73; R.J. Brentijens et al, Science Translational Medicine, 5/177 (2013), 177ra882010-01-01T00:00:00+00002010-01-01T00:00:00+00002010-01-01T00:00:00+0000Nirenberg was a biochemist and geneticist who shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Medicine for interpreting the genetic code and its function of protein synthesis. The Prize was given on the back of some experiments Nirenberg conducted in 1960 and 1961 which identified particular codons (3 chemical units of DNA) that specified each of the 20 amino acids that make up protein molecules.2010-01-15T00:00:00+0000Black was a Scottish physician and pharmacologist. He is best known for pioneering methods to develop purposefully built drug molecules instead of being synthesised and then investigated for their therapeutic effects. He invented the first modern blood-pressure drug and first modern ulcer drug, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1988. 2010-03-22T00:00:00+0000Klinman was an American immunologist who developed the splenic focus assay, a tool that allowed analysis of antibody production derived from single clones of B cells. He used the tool to analyse immune tolerance and immune responses to influenza. In additon he invented the splenic fragment system, a technique that helped generate some of earliest monoclonal antibodies against viral antigens and cancer.2010-05-04T00:00:00+0000TALENs are restriction enzymes secreted by Xanthomonas bacteria when they infect plants. They can be engineered to cut out specific sequences of DNA. The genome editing method was published in M Christian, T Cermak, E L Doyle, et al, 'Targeting DNA double-strand breaks with TAL effector nucleases', Genetics, 186 (2010), 757-761.2010-07-26T00:00:00+0000Sends shockwaves through RNAi drug development community.2010-11-01T00:00:00+0000Fenn shared the 2002 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for the development of mass spectrometric (MS) methods to analyse proteins and other large biological molecules. In the late 1980s he developed a technique, known as electrospray ionisation, which involves the injection of a liquid solution of the sample to be analysed into an electric field. This disperses the sample into a spray of charged droplets. Once the droplets shrink, through evaporation on the electric field, it is possible to separate individual molecules the droplets thereby providing free ions for analysis by MS. Fenn's technique is highly versatile and and provides a quick means to get accurate information about the mass of a large molecule, even when it is in a mixture with other molecules. It is used in the development of pharmaceuticals and to analyse harmful substances in food. 2010-12-10T00:00:00+00002011-01-01T00:00:00+00002011-01-01T00:00:00+0000Campath-1H shown to help lower the amount of immunosuppressant drugs taken by organ transplant patients. 2011-01-01T00:00:00+0000Gene therapy directed at liver cells2011-01-01T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
11 Dec 2009Transcription activator-like effectors, proteins secreted by the plant pathogenic bacteria (Xanthomonas), are sequencedMoscou, Bogdanove, Boch, Scholze, Schornack, Landgraf, HahnIowa State UniversityGene editing, TALENs
27 Dec 2009Paul Zamecnik diedZamecnikMassachusetts General HospitalDNA, RNA, Gene therapy
2010Adult cells reprogrammed into neurons, cardiac muscle and blood cells   Stem cells
2010Induced pluripotent cells created by transfection of mRNA   Stem cells
2010First clinical trial of human embryonic-derived stem cells for treatment of spinal cord injury   Stem cells
Jan 2010Gene therapy for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency fails to win European approval Amsterdam Molecular Therapeutics, UniQureGene therapy
Jan 2010Gene therapy successful in treating beta-thalassaemia  Gene therapy
2010 - 2013Studies show CD19-specific CAR-modified T cells to be promising treatment in patients with B cell malignanciesKochenderfer, Kalos, BrentjensNational Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, University of PennsylvaniaAdoptive cell therapy, Cancer immunotherapy, Gene therapy
2010Davies appointed interim Chief Medical Officer of EnglandDavies  
2010Davies elected fellow of the Academy of Medical SciencesDavies  
15 Jan 2010Marshall W Nirenberg diedNirenbergNational Institutes of HealthGenetics
22 Mar 2010James W Black diedBlackKing's College LondonPharmacology
4 May 2010Norman Klinman died in San Diego, California, USAKlinmanWistar Institute, University of PennsylvaniaAntibodies, Monoclonal antibodies, Immunology
26 Jul 2010Genome editing technique using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) publishedChristian, Cermak, Doyle, Schmidt, Zhang, Hummel, Bogdanove, VoytasUniversity of Minnesota, Iowa State UniversityGene editing, TALENs
Nov 2010Disappointment follows Roche's decision to pull out of RNAi therapeutics  RNA interference
10 Dec 2010John B Fenn diedFennVirginia Commonwealth University, Yale UniversityAnalytical chemistry
2011Isolation of multipotent human blood stem cells capable of forming all cells in the blood system   Stem cells
Jan 2011DNA sequencing proves useful to documenting the rapid evolution of Streptococcus penumoniae in response to the application of vaccines Wellcome Trust Sanger InstituteDNA Sequencing
2011Positive results from trials using Campath-1H for organ transplant patientsWaldmann, CalneCambridge UniversityCampath
2011Gene therapy reduces symptoms in six patients with haemophilia B  Gene therapy

11 Dec 2009

Transcription activator-like effectors, proteins secreted by the plant pathogenic bacteria (Xanthomonas), are sequenced

27 Dec 2009

Paul Zamecnik died

2010

Adult cells reprogrammed into neurons, cardiac muscle and blood cells

2010

Induced pluripotent cells created by transfection of mRNA

2010

First clinical trial of human embryonic-derived stem cells for treatment of spinal cord injury

Jan 2010

Gene therapy for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency fails to win European approval

Jan 2010

Gene therapy successful in treating beta-thalassaemia

2010 - 2013

Studies show CD19-specific CAR-modified T cells to be promising treatment in patients with B cell malignancies

2010

Davies appointed interim Chief Medical Officer of England

2010

Davies elected fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences

15 Jan 2010

Marshall W Nirenberg died

22 Mar 2010

James W Black died

4 May 2010

Norman Klinman died in San Diego, California, USA

26 Jul 2010

Genome editing technique using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) published

Nov 2010

Disappointment follows Roche's decision to pull out of RNAi therapeutics

10 Dec 2010

John B Fenn died

2011

Isolation of multipotent human blood stem cells capable of forming all cells in the blood system

Jan 2011

DNA sequencing proves useful to documenting the rapid evolution of Streptococcus penumoniae in response to the application of vaccines

2011

Positive results from trials using Campath-1H for organ transplant patients

2011

Gene therapy reduces symptoms in six patients with haemophilia B