Timeline of key events in biotechnology

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James Francis Pantridge, always known as Frank, was an Irish physician and cardiologist who is known as the father of emergency medicine. Working at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Belfast, Pantridge invented the first portable defibrillator in 1965. Able to be operated with car batteries and weighing just 3 kilos, his portable defibrillator freed up patients suffering a myocardial infarction from having to get swift care in hospital. All front-line ambulances soon became equipped with such febrillators. 2004-12-26T00:00:00+0000Axelrod was a pharmacologist and biochemist who shared the 1970 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his discovery of the important role of neurotransmitters in the regulation of the nervous system. His work laid the foundation for the development of drugs for pain relief and a new class of antidepressants. Axelrod also helped demonstrate how the pineal gland is regulated during the sleep-awake cycle.2004-12-29T00:00:00+0000James Till and Ernest McCulloch awarded the Lasker Prize for experiments that first established a technique - the spleen colony assay - for enumerating the blood stem cell and studying its regenerative effects. Setting the stage for the contemporary development of stem cell biology. 2005-01-01T00:00:00+00002005-01-01T00:00:00+0000The Pattison report sets out plans and investment for the emerging paradigm of regenerative medicine where both embryonic and adult somatic stem cells will be important players. 2005-01-01T00:00:00+0000The finding was made by the husband and wife team May-Britt Moser and Edvard I Moser together with John O'Keefe after conducting experiments with rats. They found that when a rat developed nerve cells that form a co-ordinate system for navigation when they passed certain points on a hexagonal grid. The teams work laid the foundation for new understandings about the cognitive processes and spacial deficits associated with neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. 2005-01-01T00:00:00+0000Z Feng et al, 'The coordinate regulation of the p53 and mTOR pathways in cells', PNAS, 102 (2005), 8204–9; RG Jones, et al, 'AMP-activated protein kinase induces a p53-dependent metabolic checkpoint', Molecular Cell, 18 (2005), 283–93.2005-01-01T00:00:00+0000They wanted to find out if it is a mechanism bacteria use to protect themselves from viral infection.2005-01-01T00:00:00+0000Four of the drugs were in Phase I, four in Phase II and one in Phase III trials.2005-01-01T00:00:00+0000Study conducted by team led by Shelley Berger published in Molecular Cell.2005-02-17T00:00:00+00002005-03-30T00:00:00+0000Urnov, F D, Miller, J C, Lee, Y, Beausejour, et al, 'Highly efficient endogenous human gene correction using designed zinc-finger nucleases', Nature, 435, (2005), 646–51.2005-04-03T00:00:00+0000Hilleman, an American microbiologist, is credited with having saved more children's lives than any other medical scientist in the 20th century. He pioneered eight out of the fourteen vaccines routinely recommended for children today. This included the vaccines for measles, mumps, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, chickenpox, meningitis, pneumonia and Haemophilus influenzae bacteria. Hilleman developed these vaccines as head of Merck & Co's virus and cell biology research department. 2005-04-11T00:00:00+0000The two companies agreed to share the costs and responsibilities of research and product development up to the completion of a Phase 2 clinical study in each party's territory.2005-05-01T00:00:00+00002005-05-13T00:00:00+0000Andras Nagy created embryonic stem cell lines from donated embryos no longer needed by couples undergoing fertility treatment. This laid the foundation for the creation of embryonic stem cells from human skin four years later. 2005-06-15T00:00:00+0000Organisations awarded bronze, silver and gold awards to identify 'employers of choice'. Scheme evolved out of work between Athena Project and the Scientific Women's Academic Network (SWAN). Charter requires commitment at all levels of an organisation to tackle inequalities of women in science and chancing attitudes and culture. Charter supported by Equality Challenge Unit and UKRC.2005-06-22T00:00:00+0000Doll was a British physician and epidemiologist who made his name by demonstrating the link between tobacco smoking and health problems, including cancer and heart disease. He first made the link in 1950 after studying lung cancer patients in 20 London hospitals. Originally the cancer was thought to be caused by tarmac or motor car fumes, but Doll rapidly discovered that tobacco smoking was the only factor the patients shared in common. Publishing the study in the British Medical Journal, Doll pointed out that the risk of developing lung cancer was 50 times greater among those who smoked 25 or more cigarettes a day than among non-smokers. Doll himself stopped smoking based on his findings. 2005-07-24T00:00:00+0000The scientists made the suggestion based on sequence analysis of CRISPR structures from 24 strains of the bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus and Streptococcus vestibularis They published their findings in A Bolotin, B Quinquis, A Sorokin, S D Ehrlich, 'Clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPRs) have spacers of extrachromosomal origin', Microbiology, 151/Pt 8 (2005): 2551-6.2005-08-01T00:00:00+0000A team at Harvard Stem Cell Institute reported fusing adult skin cells with embryonic stem cells to reset the culture so that the cells behave like embryonic stem cells. The researchers did the work using pelvic bone cells as the somatic cells and a different human embryonic cell line. Chad A Cowan, Jocelyn Alenza, Douglas A Melton, Kevin Eggan, 'Nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells after fusion with human embryonic stem cells', Science, 309/5739 (2005), 1369-73. 2005-08-25T00:00:00+0000
Date Event People Places Sciences
26 Dec 2004Frank Pantridge diedPantridgeRoyal Victoria Hospital in BelfastCardiolovascular
29 Dec 2004Julius Axelrod diedAxelrodNational Institutes of HealthNeuroscience
2005Lasker Prize awarded to James Till and Ernest McCullochTill, McCulloch Stem cells
2005First evidence for human bone cancer stem cells   Stem cells
2005UK Pattison Report emphasizes stem cells as likely potential therapies for the future  Stem cells
2005Discovery of nerve cell that allows the brain to determine spatial position May-Britt Moser, Edvard Moser, O'KeefeNorwegian University of Science and Technology Neuroscience
2005p53 shown to regulate metabolismFeng, Zhang, Levine, Jin, Jones, Plas, Kubek, Buzzai, Mu, Xu, Birnbaum, ThompsonCancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Pennsylvaniap53
2005Jennifer Doudna and Jillian Banfield started investigating CRISPR Doudna, BanfieldUniversity of California BerkeleyCRISPR-Cas9
2005 - 2018Seattle Genetics discontinued work on 9 drug candidates  Seattle Genetics 
Feb 2005Enzyme Ubp10 demonstrated to protect the genome from potential destabilising molecular eventsBerger, EmreWistar InstituteDNA, Genetics
30 Mar 2005FDA approved entecavir, an antiviral drug, for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults and children under 2 years old   
3 Apr 2005Zinc finger method reported capable of modifying some genes in the human genome, laying the foundation for its use as tool to correct genes for monogenic disordersUrnov, Miller, Lee, BeausejourSangamo BioSciences, University of Texas Southwester Medical CenterGene therapy, Gene editing, Zinc fingers
11 Apr 2005Maurice Hilleman diedHillemanMerck & CoVaccines, Infectious diseases
May 2005Medarex and Ono Pharmaceuticals entered research alliance to develop a fully human anti-PD-1 antibody for the treatment of cancer Medarex, Ono PharmaceuticalImmune checkpoint inhibitors, Immunotherapy, Monoclonal antibodies
13 May 2005FDA approved peginterferon alfa-2a, an antiviral drug, for patients with chronic hepatitis B who failed previous antiviral treatment Roche 
15 Jun 2005Canadian researchers created the country's first embryonic stem cell linesNagySamuel Lunenfeld Research InstituteStem cells
22 Jun 2005Athena SWAN Charter recognition scheme launched to advance representation of women in science, technology, medicine and mathematics in UK universities   
24 Jul 2005Richard Doll diedDollCentral Middlesex HospitalEpidemiology
1 Aug 2005French scientists suggested CRISPR spacer sequences can provide cell immunity against phage infection and degrade DNABolotin, Quinquis, Sorokin, EhrlichInstitut National de la Recherche AgronomiqueCRISPR-Cas9, Gene editing
25 Aug 2005Harvard scientists reported reprogramming adult skin cells into embryonic stem cells Cowan, Eggan, Melton, AlienzaHarvard Stem Cell InstituteStem cells

26 Dec 2004

Frank Pantridge died

29 Dec 2004

Julius Axelrod died

2005

Lasker Prize awarded to James Till and Ernest McCulloch

2005

First evidence for human bone cancer stem cells

2005

UK Pattison Report emphasizes stem cells as likely potential therapies for the future

2005

Discovery of nerve cell that allows the brain to determine spatial position

2005

p53 shown to regulate metabolism

2005

Jennifer Doudna and Jillian Banfield started investigating CRISPR

2005 - 2018

Seattle Genetics discontinued work on 9 drug candidates

Feb 2005

Enzyme Ubp10 demonstrated to protect the genome from potential destabilising molecular events

30 Mar 2005

FDA approved entecavir, an antiviral drug, for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults and children under 2 years old

3 Apr 2005

Zinc finger method reported capable of modifying some genes in the human genome, laying the foundation for its use as tool to correct genes for monogenic disorders

11 Apr 2005

Maurice Hilleman died

May 2005

Medarex and Ono Pharmaceuticals entered research alliance to develop a fully human anti-PD-1 antibody for the treatment of cancer

13 May 2005

FDA approved peginterferon alfa-2a, an antiviral drug, for patients with chronic hepatitis B who failed previous antiviral treatment

15 Jun 2005

Canadian researchers created the country's first embryonic stem cell lines

22 Jun 2005

Athena SWAN Charter recognition scheme launched to advance representation of women in science, technology, medicine and mathematics in UK universities

24 Jul 2005

Richard Doll died

1 Aug 2005

French scientists suggested CRISPR spacer sequences can provide cell immunity against phage infection and degrade DNA

25 Aug 2005

Harvard scientists reported reprogramming adult skin cells into embryonic stem cells

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